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An annotated catalogue of the scorpion types (Arachnida, Scorpiones) held in the Zoological Museum Hamburg. Part I: Parvorder Iurida Soleglad & Fet, 2003
expand article infoLionel Monod, Nadine Duperre§, Danilo Harms§
‡ Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneve, Switzerland
§ Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

Scorpions have always inspired fear and fascination because of the potency of their venoms. Although this ancient arachnid group is relatively small (ca. 2400 species) and has been continuously studied for the past century, the taxonomy is still in a state of flux and the correct identification of species often remains difficult. With more than 725 species and 9000 specimens, the Zoological Museum in Hamburg (ZMH) holds one of the largest and most significant scorpion collections in the world. This collection also contains many historical types described by Karl Kraepelin in the early 20th century. In order to contribute to a more stable scorpion taxonomy and to assist future scorpion researchers, we present an illustrated and annotated catalogue of the ZMH scorpion collections. The type specimens of 89 species belonging to 10 families are documented, imaged and assessed alongside their primary data. For practical reasons, only the taxa belonging to the parvorder Iurida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 are presented here whilst the Parvorder Buthida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 will be catalogued in a second publication.

Key Words

arachnology, Karl Kraepelin, systematics, taxonomy, type catalogue

Introduction

The inventory of life on Earth is founded on taxonomy, the science of describing, naming and classifying species. Being able to correctly recognize an organism is a prerequisite to study the diversification of living forms through time. Taxonomy thus represents the primary tool used in the broader practice of systematics. Large reference collections of specimens are of paramount importance for both disciplines. They are required to confirm the status of new species by comparison with those that are already known, but also to infer species distributions, and to assess changes in species abundances and range shifts through time series (Habel et al. 2013). Such collections are principally held by natural history museums which today serve as libraries and infrastructure for biodiversity research. One of the most significant collections of scorpions is held by the Zoological Museum in Hamburg. It comprises roughly 9000 specimens belonging to more than 725 species. It was accumulated over more than a century of research, includes specimens from all over the world, and is rich in type material.

A major problem with old collections such as the one treated here is the inadequacy of early taxonomic descriptions and accompanying data to fulfill current-day standards. The lack of proper illustrations and/or measurements often limits the usefulness of these descriptions and the original material needs to be re-examined and re-described by present-day authors as part of taxonomic revisions. Moreover, a century ago the principle of type designation had not yet been implemented and the original descriptions often lack critical information on which specimens of a given series were used as reference, as well as information on the origin and repository of these specimens. Finally, locality data for old museum specimens are often highly imprecise with minimal geographical information. Still, the maps produced at the time during major scientific expeditions were often quite accurate and can be georeferenced a posteriori allowing the assessment of locality data with high precision. However, such maps are not always available.

All problems highlighted above are evident when working with the scorpion material held by the Zoological Museum in Hamburg (ZMH, Germany). The core of this collection was accumulated by arachnologist Karl Kraepelin (1848–1915) who was one of the early leading scorpion specialists and probably one of the most influential. Kraepelin’s landmark monograph in “Das Tierreich” (Kraepelin 1899a) was recognized for several decades as the most exhaustive classification of the order Scorpiones. Kraepelin’s contribution to scorpion taxonomy is not limited to this work but also includes an important series of papers published between 1891 and 1929 that resulted in the description of many new taxa (see table 1) and the establishment of a large collection of types. This collection was never reassessed and documented in its entirety. Only a few of the original specimens have been re-examined and illustrated in the course of revisionary works (Kovařík 2009; Kovařík and Ojanguren Affilastro 2013) but these publications only treated specific taxa and did not provide a comprehensive overview of the complete collection.

Here, we provide an illustrated type catalogue of the scorpion collection present at the Zoological Museum in Hamburg. This work offers a complete inventory of the type species, type specimens within each series, high-resolution images for type specimens, and annotated notes on the primary data. A special effort was made to determine type localities with as much accuracy as possible by finding information on collectors or expeditions during which the material was obtained. This catalogue is aiming to stabilize the taxonomy in a group where species descriptions go back to Carl Linnaeus but current classification systems are still in flux. For reasons of manageability, our catalogue will be published in two parts. The current catalogue treats the taxa belonging to the parvorder Iurida Soleglad & Fet 2003. A second publication will focus entirely on the Parvorder Buthida Soleglad & Fet 2003.

The history of the CeNak scorpion collection

The core of the Hamburg scorpion collection was accumulated by Karl Matthias Friedrich Magnus Kraepelin (1848–1915; Karl Kraepelin hereafter; Fig. 1A) who was the director of the Hamburg Museum from 1889 to 1914 (see Harms and Dupérré 2018 for additional details). Kraepelin was a versatile naturalist and a productive scientist who not only authored teaching materials and nature guides for school students (Kraepelin 1918, 1921, 1926), but also works on a wide array of different topics in the field of biology, e.g. botany and identification guides for plants (Kraepelin 1913a, 1917, 1927), the role of natural history museums (Kraepelin 1891a, 1901a, 1912a), invasive species (Kraepelin 1901b), the local fauna of Hamburg (Kraepelin 1886, 1896a, 1901c), and several groups of invertebrates such as bryozoans (Kraepelin 1887, 1892, 1914a), insects and their functional morphology (Kraepelin 1883, 1884), scolopendromorph centipedes (Kraepelin 1903a, 1908a, 1916), and some of the arachnid orders (Kraepelin 1897a, 1899b, 1901d, 1904, 1929).

Figure 1.

Karl Kraepelin and his works A portrait of Kraepelin B title page of the ZMH scorpion catalogue that was hand-written by Kraepelin C example of original handwriting in the catalogue.

Kraepelin’s work was internationally recognized and he became an expert on Gliederspinnen (“Segmented spiders”), a general term then applied to scorpions (Scorpiones), whip scorpions (Uropygi), whip spiders (Amblypygi) and camel spiders (Solifugae). He published extensively on these groups and his most significant works are complete taxonomic inventories of these orders in “Scorpiones and Pedipalpi” (Kraepelin 1899a) (Fig. 2B) and “Palpigradi und Solifugae” (Kraepelin 1901d) in “Das Tierreich”, a book series that provided a complete taxonomic inventory of all species on Earth known by then.

Kraepelin was particularly fond of scorpions and, aside from these monographs, published 25 research papers on this order (Table 1). In these works, he focused predominantly on taxonomy, but also studied scorpion biogeography (Kraepelin 1905) and sexual morphology (Kraepelin 1908b). As was common amongst taxonomists at that time, Kraepelin would frequently identify and describe the material collected during various zoological expeditions and his later papers are often published in large monographs that compile the zoological results of expeditions that departed from the port of Hamburg, predominately to Africa and Australia. His works on the morphology and biogeography of scorpions have largely been forgotten which may be due to their publication in German but they still contain useful information and demonstrate expertise beyond taxonomy.

Other workers have contributed to the development of this scorpion collection during the first third of the 20th century. Kraepelin was in contact with fellow arachnologist Eugène Simon (1848–1924) from the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris and the two exchanged material quite frequently. None of the original correspondence have been preserved and there is no documentation on when this exchange has occurred, but some type series of scorpions and spiders are split between Paris and Hamburg and it appears that Kraepelin would send spiders from the Hamburg collection to Simon for taxonomic description (Dupérré and Harms 2018) whereas Kraepelin catalogued the entire scorpion collection of the Paris museum (Kraepelin 1901e) and described species from this collection. It is interesting to note that Simon also described scorpions during the earlier stages of his career (Simon 1872, 1874, 1876, 1877a, 1877b, 1878a, 1878b, 1879, 1880a, 1880b, 1885, 1887) but not so after Kraepelin had catalogued all the Gliederspinnen (scorpions, solifuges, whip spiders and whip scorpions) from the Paris museum (Kraepelin 1899c, 1901e, 1901f).

Similarly, Ferdinand Karsch (1853–1936) from the Zoological Museum in Berlin and Kraepelin must have exchanged material, as we have documented before in a catalogue on the solifuges of the Hamburg collection (Harms and Dupérré 2018). Kraepelin seemed to maintain cordial relations with several other naturalists from which he received specimens: Wilhelm Peters (1815–1883) from the Zoological Museum in Berlin, Reginald Innes Pocock (1863–1947) from the British Museum (London) and John Hewitt (1880–1961) from the Albany Museum (Grahamstown, South Africa). The lively exchange of specimens ended abruptly with the death of Kraepelin and a long hiatus occurred when the Zoological Museum in Hamburg was destroyed in World War II. Fortunately, the scorpion collections where hidden away in underground shafts and withstood the destruction of Hamburg in 1943. It is surprising that even the original type catalogue, handwritten by Kraepelin, remained intact and still provides useful data today.

Work on the scorpion collections after World War II was slow to resume because subsequent curators focused on mites and tardigrades but the collection was frequented by visiting scientists and many loans to other institutions occurred over the decades. Wilson R. Lourenço from the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris described twelve new species from the existing collections but also donated several type specimens that he acquired personally. František Kovařík from the Czech Republic inventoried the entire collection and examined some old type specimens as part of his catalogues (Kovařík 2009; Kovařík and Ojanguren Affilastro 2013). He also deposited several type specimens in the ZMH.

In its current state, the collection has a biogeographical focus on the African and Australasian regions. The specimens from Africa were collected mostly as part of zoological surveys in former German colonies, e.g. Carlo Freiherr von Erlangen (1872–1904) and Oscar Neumann (1867–1946) explored northeastern Africa from 1899 to 1901 (the former “Massailand” between northern Tanzania and southern Kenya), and Leonhard Schulze (1872–1955) visited “Namaland” (today part of Namibia) in southwestern Africa from 1903 to 1905. Several other large expeditions contributed to increase the scorpion collection of the ZMH. Wilhelm Michaelsen (1860–1937) led three expeditions to South America (1892–1893), southwestern Australia (1905) and southwestern Africa (1911) that added specimens to the collections. Eric Mjöberg (1882–1938) led the first Swedish scientific journey to Australia in 1910–1913. Otto Fuhrmann and his party visited Colombia in 1910 and Fritz Sarasin and Jean Roux travelled to New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands in 1910–1912. When available, further information (biography, travel itinerary, references) are given about each collector and expeditions under the relevant individual species section.

The research papers published by Karl Krapelin on scorpions, the new species described within, and their current status. English translations for original research articles in German language are given in square brackets. Species in bold have been synonymised since their original description. * Species treated within this paper.

Year / name of publication Original species and page of description Valid species and current classification
1891: Revision der Skorpione. I. Die Familie der Androctonidae [Revision of scorpions. I. The family Androctonidae] (Kraepelin, 1891b) 1. Centrurus thorellii: p. 124 1. Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891)
1894: Revision der Scorpione. II. Scorpionidae und Bothriuridae [Revision of scorpions. II. Scorpionidae und Bothriuridae] (Kraepelin, 1894) 1. Scorpio arabicus: p. 58. 1. Pandiborellius arabicus (Kraepelin, 1894)*
2. Scorpio pallidus*: p. 60. 2. Pandinurus pallidus (Kraepelin, 1894)*
3. Opisthophthalmus intermedius*: p. 89 3. Opistophthalmus intermedius Kraepelin, 1894*
4. Opisthophthalmus pictus*: p. 102 4. Opistophthalmus pictus Kraepelin, 1894*
5. Opistacanthus madagascariensis*: p. 125 5. Opisthacanthus madagascariensis Kraepelin, 1894*
6. Bothriurus burmeisteri*: p. 227 6. Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894*
1895: Nachtrag zu Theil I der Revision der Scorpione [Supplement to Part I of the revision of scorpions] (Kraepelin, 1895a) 1. Tityus paraguayensis: p. 19 1. Tityus paraguayensis Kraepelin, 1895*
2. Tityus bolivianus: p. 21 2. Tityus bolivianus Kraepelin, 1895*
1896: Neue und weniger bekannte Skorpione [New and less well-known scorpions] (Kraepelin, 1896b) 1. Archisometrus braueri: p. 123 1. Lychas braueri (Kraepelin, 1896)
2. Babycurus gigas: p. 124 2. Babycurus gigas Kraepelin, 1896
3. Babycurus neglectus: p. 125 (ex: Rhoptrurus dentatus Karsch, 1879; misident. in Kraepelin 1891: p. 63) 3. Babycurus kirki (Pocock, 1890)
4. Tityus ecuadorensis: p.127 4. Tityus ecuadorensis Kraepelin, 1896
5. Tityus paraensis: p. 129 5. Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843)
6. Diplocentrus hasethi*: p. 130 6. Didymocentrus hasethi (Kraepelin, 1896)*
7. Heteromerus boehmei: p. 131 (misspelling) 7. Opistophthalmus boehmi (Kraepelin, 1896)
8. Cheloctonus glaber*: p. 134 8. Cheloctonus glaber Kraepelin, 1896*
9. Hadogenes opisthacanthoides*: p. 136 9. Heteroscorpion opisthacanthoides (Kraepelin, 1896)*
10. Heterochactas wittii*: p. 141 10. Teuthraustes wittii (Kraepelin, 1896)*
1897: Scorpiones und Thelyphoniden [Scorpiones and Thelyphonida] (Kraepelin, 1897b) No new species.
1898: Neue Pedipalpen und Skorpione des Hamburger Museums [New Pedipalpi and scorpions of the Hamburg Museum] (Kraepelin, 1898a) 1. Microbuthus pusillus: p. 42 1. Microbuthus pusillus Kraepelin, 1898
2. Butheolus ferrugineus: p. 43 2. Neobuthus ferrugineus (Kraepelin, 1908)
3. Archisometrus nigrimanus: p. 43 3. Lychas scutilus C. L. Koch, 1845
4. Tityus trivittatus: p. 43 4. Tityus trivittatus Kraepelin, 1898
5. Centrurus subgranosus: p. 44 5. Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821)
6. Scorpiops affinis*: p. 44 6. Scorpiops hardwickii (Gervais, 1843)*
1898: Die Skorpione Ost-Afrikas [The scorpions of eastern Africa] (Kraepelin, 1898b) No new species.
1898: Über die Linné’schen Arten der Gattung Scorpio [About the Linnaean species of the genus Scorpio] (Kraepelin, 1898c) No new species.
1899: Scorpiones und Pedipalpi [Scorpiones and Pedipalpi] (Kraepelin, 1899a) No new species.
1900: Ueber einige neue Gliederspinnen [Remarks on some new segmented spiders] (Kraepelin, 1900) 1. Anomalobuthus rickmersi: p. 10 1. Anomalobuthus rickmersi Kraepelin, 1900
2. Buthus maindroni: p. 11 2. Compsobuthus maindroni (Kraepelin, 1900)
3. Grosphus grandidieri: p. 13 3. Teruelius grandidieri (Kraepelin, 1900)
4. Grosphus flavopiceus: p.14 4. Teruelius flavopiceus (Kraepelin, 1900)
5. Grosphus bistriatus: p.14 5. Teruelius bistriatus (Kraepelin, 1900)
6. Grosphus hirtus: p. 15 6. Grosphus hirtus Kraepelin, 1900
7. Hemiscorpius maindroni*: p. 16 7. Hemiscorpius maindroni Kraepelin, 1900*
8. Syntropis macrura: p. 17 8. Syntropis macrura Kraepelin, 1900
1901: Catalogue des scorpions des collections du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris [Catalogue of the scorpions from the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris] (Kraepelin, 1901e) No new species.
1901: Uber die durch den Schiffsverkehr in Hamburg eingeschleppten Tiere [About animals introduced by the shipping traffic in Hamburg] (Kraepelin, 1901b) No new species.
1903: Scorpione und Solifugen Nordost-Afrikas, gesammelt 1900 und 1901 von Carlo Freiherrn von Erlanger und Oscar Neumann [Scorpions and solifuges from northeastern Africa, collected in 1900 and 1901 by Carlo Freiherr von Erlanger and Oscar Neumann] (Kraepelin, 1903b) 1. Butheolus glabrifrons: p. 564 1. Orthochirus glabrifrons Kraepelin, 1903
1904: Zur Nomenklatur der Skorpione und Pedipalpi [On the nomenclature of scorpions and Pedipalpi] (Kraepelin, 1904) No new species.
1905: Die geografische Verbreitung der Skorpione [The geographical distribution of scorpions] (Kraepelin, 1905) No new species.
1908: Scorpiones [Scorpiones] (Kraepelin, 1908c) 1. Urodacus hartmeyeri*: p. 99 1. Urodacus hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908*
2. Cercophonius michaelseni*: p. 102 2. Cercophonius michaelseni Kraepelin, 1908*
3. Cercophonius granulosus*: p. 103 3. Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908*
4. Cercophonius sulcatus*: p. 103 4. Cercophonius sulcatus Kraepelin, 1908*
1908: Skorpione und Solifugen [Scorpions and solifuges] (Kraepelin, 1908d) 1. Uroplectes carinatus mediostriatus: p. 257 1. Uroplectes carinatus (Pocock, 1890)
2. Opisthophthalmus schultzei*: p.262 2. Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908*
3. Opisthophthalmus undulatus*: p. 263 3. Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908*
4. Opisthophthalmus intercedens*: p. 265 4. Opistophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908*
1908: Die sekundären Geschlechtscharaktere der Skorpione, Pedipalpen und Solifugen [The secondary sexual characters of scorpions, pedipalpi and solifuges] (Kraepelin, 1908b) No new species.
1911: Neue Beiträge zur Systematik der Gliederspinnen [New contributions to the systematics of segmented spiders] (Kraepelin, 1911) 1. Tityus bocki: p. 65 1. Tityus argentinus Borelli, 1899
2. Tityus bolivianus andinus: p. 66 2. Tityus argentinus Borelli, 1899
3. Tityus bolivianus soratensis: p. 68 3. Tityus soratensis Kraepelin, 1911
4. Centruoides koesteri: p. 72 4. Centruoides koesteri Kraepelin, 1911
5. Opisthacanthus fischeri*: p. 79 5. Opisthacanthus rugiceps Pocock, 1897
6. Opisthacanthus minor*: p. 79 6. Opisthacanthus validus Thorell, 1876
7. Opisthacanthus aequispinus*: p. 80 7. Opisthacanthus diremptus (Karsch, 1879)
8. Opisthacanthus obscurus*: p. 81 8. Opisthacanthus capensis Thorell, 1876
9. Opisthacanthus transvaalicus*: p. 82 9. Opisthacanthus validus Thorell, 1876
10. Vejovis minimus*: p. 83 10. Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911)*
11. Bothriurus flavidus*: p. 92 11. Bothriurus flavidus Kraepelin, 1911*
12. Bothriurus bocki*: p. 96 12. Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911*
13. Bothriurus curvidigitus*: p. 97 13. Orobothriurus curvidigitus (Kraepelin, 1911)*
14. Bothriurus paessleri*: p. 98 14. Orobothriurus paessleri (Kraepelin, 1911)*
1912: Neue Beiträge zur Systematik der Gliederspinnen. II. Chactinae (Scorpiones) [New contributions to the systematics of segmented spiders. II. Chactinae (Scorpiones)] (Kraepelin, 1912b) 1. Chactas setosus*: p. 62 1. Chactas setosus Kraepelin, 1912*
2. Chactas gestroi: p. 69 2. Chactas gestroi Kraepelin, 1912
3. Teuthraustes ohausi*: p. 77 3. Teuthraustes ohausi Kraepelin, 1912*
4. Teuthraustes glaber: p. 80 4. Teuthraustes glaber Kraepelin, 1912*
5. Chactopsis insignis: p. 87 5. Chactopsis insignis Kraepelin, 1912
1913: Neue Beiträge zur Systematik der Gliederspinnen. III. A. Bemerkungen zur Skorpionenfauna Indiens. B. Die Skorpione, Pedipalpen und Solifugen Deutsch-Ostafrikas [New contributions to the systematics of segmented spiders. III. The scorpions, Pedipalpi and solifuges of German East Africa.] (Kraepelin, 1913b) 1. Chaerilus assamensis: p. 144 1. Chaerilus assamensis Kraepelin, 1913
2. Chaerilus granifrons: p. 147 2. Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879
3. Chaerilus hirsti: p. 150 3. Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879
4. Lychas obsti: p. 175 4. Lychas obsti Kraepelin, 1913
5. Lychas asper var. obscurus: p. 175 5. Lychas asper (Pocock, 1891)
6. Uroplectes fischeri nigrocarinatus: p. 179 6. Uroplectes fischeri nigrocarinatus Kraepelin, 1913
7. Babycurus wituensis: p. 181 7. Babycurus wituensis Kraepelin, 1913
1914: Skorpione und Solifugae [Scorpions and solifuges] (Kraepelin, 1914b) No new species.
1914: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Skorpione und Pedipalpen Columbiens [Contributions to the knowledge of scorpions and Pedipalpi in Colombia] (Kraepelin, 1914c) 1. Tityus fuhrmanni: p. 17 1. Tityus fuehrmanni Kraepelin, 1914
2. Tityus parvulus: p. 19 2. Tityus parvulus: Kraepelin, 1914
3. Chactas reticulatus: p. 25 3. Chactas reticulatus: Kraepelin, 1914 *
1914: Die Skorpione und Pedipalpen von Neu-Caledonien und den benachbarten Inselgruppen [The scorpions and Pedipalpi of New Caledonia and adjacent islands] (Kraepelin, 1914d) 1. Hormurus karschi keyensis*: 331 1. Hormurus karschii Keyserling, 1885
2. Hormurus sarasini*: p. 335 2. Hormurus neocaledonicus Simon, 1877
3. Hormurus papuanus*: p. 333 3. Hormurus papuanus Kraepelin, 1914
4. Hormurus boholiensis*: p. 333 4. Hormurus boholiensis Kraepelin, 1914*
1916: Scolopendriden und Skorpione [Scolopenders and scorpions] (Kraepelin, 1916) 1. Lychas mjobergi: p. 25 (note spelling as mjöbergi = oe) 1. Lychas mjobergi Kraepelin, 1916
2. Lychas marmoreus obscurus: p. 27 2. Lychas marmoreus (C. L. Koch, 1844)
3. Lychas marmoreus nigrescens: p. 27 3. Lychas marmoreus (C. L. Koch, 1844)
4. Lychas marmoreus kimberleyanus: p. 28 4. Lychas variatus (Thorell, 1876)
5. Lychas marmoreus splendens: p. 28 5. Lychas marmoreus (C. L. Koch, 1844)
6. Lychas spinatus: p. 33 6. Lychas variatus (Thorell, 1876)
7. Urodacus fossor*: p. 36 7. Urodacus yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903)
8. Urodacus granifrons*: p. 39 8. Urodacus yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903)
1929: Skorpione, Pedipalpen und Solifugen der zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1910–1911 [Scorpions, Pedipalpi and solifuges of the second German expedition to central Africa 1910–1911] (Kraepelin, 1929) 1. Uroplectes schubotzi: p. 89 1. Uroplectes schubotzi Kraepelin, 1929

Materials and methods

Specimen storage and curation

All specimens at ZMH are stored in jars with 75% ethanol (Fig. 2A) and dissected parts such as the hemispermatophores are kept in microvials together with the accompanying specimens to avoid misplacement. A new registration code for the ZMH specimens is introduced here which replaces previous labelling or replacement systems but we have given historical numbers and accompanying information below to allow referencing with old papers and the type catalogues by Fet et al. (2000), Kovařík (2009) and Kovařík and Ojanguren Affilastro (2013). The type series of a species may be split across several museums and relevant material is held in the following institutions: AMGS = Albany Museum, Grahamstown (South Africa); BMNH = Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)], London (United Kingdom); FKCP = František Kovařík personal collection, Praha (Czech Republic); MBCZ = Matt E. Braunwalder personal collection, Zürich (Switzerland); MCSN = Museo Civico di Storia Naturale «Giacomo Doria», Genova (Italy); MHNG = Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneva (Switzerland); MNHN = Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France); MNRJ = Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); MZUF = Museo Zoologico de “La Specola”, Firenze (Italy); NMPC = National Museum, Praha (Czech Republic); ROCC = Rolando Teruel Ochoa personal collection, Museo de Historia Natural “Tomas Romay”, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); SAMC = South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa; SMFD = Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); ZMB = Museum für Naturkunde Berlin [Zoological Museum] (Germany); ZMH = Zoological Museum Hamburg (Germany); ZMUC = Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); ZSM = Zoological State Collection, Munich (Germany).

Figure 2.

A Glass jars used for preservation of the scorpion specimens B title page of Kraepelin’s “Scorpiones und Pedipalpi” in the “Das Tierreich” series C labels from the scorpion collection showing the typical handwriting of Kraepelin.

Interpretation of labels and handwriting

The primary data for most specimens were derived from the original label and a handwritten type-catalogue for scorpions maintained by Kraepelin (Fig. 1B). Kraepelin’s style of writing is unique and the labels written by him can easily be identified (Figs 1C, 2C; see Harms and Dupérré 2018). Additional information is derived from card files that are available for the specimens in the museum archives.

Terminology and framework

There is currently no online catalogue for scorpions that is updated periodically and we refer to Fet et al. (2000) as a work basis and complement this work with data available from personal bibliographies and libraries. The definition of holotype, syntype, neotype and lectotype follows the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and Articles 73–74 were applied when determining holotype status or designating a lectotype or paralectotypes. In cases where type status had to be inferred a posteriori, we followed a set of criteria that we have outlined in a previous catalogue on the ZMH solifuges (Harms and Dupérré 2018).

The catalogue is organized according to the classification proposed by Santibañez López et al. (2019) with the family Heteroscorpionidae considered here as part of Iurida given their close relationship to non-bothriurid scorpionoid taxa. Families, genera and species are presented alphabetically. Species are listed with their complete original binomial name, and classify under the genus in which they are currently placed. All specimens previously considered as types were re-examined for this study and their status clarified. In a few cases, type status was invalidated but such specimens are still reported here and our decision justified. Finally, a complete alphabetical list of taxon names (species and subspecies) is given in Appendix 1 and may be used for quick searches (current taxonomical status is provided for each name).

For every taxon name, the following information is provided: (1) the genus under which the species was originally described; (2) the reference of the original description; (3) the current taxonomic identity with reference to the act of synonymy or taxonomic status change when applicable; and (4) the list of specimens with primary data (type status of specimens, number and sex of specimens, depository, locality, date of collection, name of collector) in the original wording whilst interpretations/translations are given in square brackets (e.g. Type locality: Namibien, Lüderitzbucht [Namibia, Lüderitz Bay]). When not provided in the original labels, GPS coordinates are presented in square brackets. In these cases, they were retrieved from gazeteers of geographic names or inferred from the original travel maps when available. They are not provided for imprecise localities: for several specimens the only indication on the labels is the country they come from (for instance Bothriurus burmeisteri from Argentina). Additional information may be provided concerning taxonomy, repository, and/or type status. Finally, biographical information about the collector with references to their relevant expeditions is also provided when available.

The following abbreviations are used in the listing of primary data: (1) “coll.” for collection or collected; “ded.” for the latin deditus (participle of dedere [to hand over]), it specifies when a specimen was acquired; “don.” for the latin donat (conjugation of donare [to give], third person singular), it specifies a donator; “leg.” for the latin legit (conjugation of legere [to collect], third person singular), it specifies a collector.

Laboratory methods

Specimen imaging was achieved using a custom-made BK Plus lab System by Dun, Inc. with integrated Canon camera, macro lens (65mm and 100mm) and the Zerene stacking software (Zeren Systems LLC 2018). Whenever possible, the dorsal and ventral aspects of male and female habitus are illustrated. We also provide photographs of the chelal fingers for the family Hormuridae, Scorpiopidae and some chactid genera because the intergeneric and interspecific variations of the characters are taxonomically relevant, at least in parts of these families (Monod and Volschenk 2004; Monod 2011a, 2015). Further images are given for the sexually dimorphic structures on the prolateral aspect of the pedipalpal chela for the Bothriuridae which allows to easily differentiate genera in this family (Maury 1975a).

Type catalogue

Class Arachnida

Order Scorpiones C.L. Koch, 1850

Parvorder Iurida Soleglad & Fet, 2003

Family Bothriuridae Simon, 1880

Type specimens belonging to 14 species are present at ZMH. Types of one additional species were lost.

Genus Bothriurus Peters, 1861

Bothriurus bocki

Fig. 3A–B

Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911: 91, 96–97, fig. 6

Current combination

Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911

Lectotype

Subadult ♂ (Fig. 3A–B, ZMH-A0000900), Bolivien [Bolivia], [La Paz], Sorata [15°46’23”S, 68°38’59”W], 09.1900, Charles Bock leg., ded. 8.05.1901.

Paralectotype

Subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0000900), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Maury (1984) designated the specimen with 9-9 pectinal teeth as the lectotype and the other specimen as the paralectotype.

Remarks on collector. Charles Bock (1923–?) was a mining engineer who traveled to Bolivia and Argentina (Garth 1957). The specimen was probably collected during his travels.

Bothriurus burmeisteri

Fig. 3C–E

Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894: 227–228, pl. III, fig. 104, 106

Current combination

Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894.

Lectotype

♂ (Fig. 3C–E, ZMH-A0000901), Argentinien [Argentina], Hermann Burmeister leg., ded. 1891.

Paralectotype

Subadult ♀, same data as holotype.

Remarks

Weidner (1959) designated the holotype and paratype although there is no indication that the original description was based on the male rather than the female. Fixing a holotype after the original publication is not allowed. According to Article 73.1.3 of the Code (ICZN 2018) a holotype can only be designated in the original publication and by the original author. In case of a description based on more than one specimen, the Code recommends the designation of a lectotype (ICZN 2018: recommendation 73F). The adult male is therefore designated here as lectotype and the subadult female is the paralectotype.

Remarks on collector

Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister (1807–1892) was a professor of zoology at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg from 1837 to 1961 before he moved to Argentina and was appointed director of the National Museum in Buenos Aires. Before this appointment, he traveled to Uruguay and Argentina in late 1856 and returned with zoological collections to Germany (Bragg 2007). The type specimens of B. burmeisteri were probably collected during this expedition.

Figure 3.

Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911, subadult male lectotype (A, B). Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894, male lectotype (C–E): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus E pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Bothriurus catharinae

Bothriurus catharinae Werner, 1939: 359–360, fig. 2

Current senior synonym

Bothriurus signatus Pocock, 1893 [synonymized by Maury 1973: 111].

Types (lost)

Male and female syntypes destroyed according to Lowe and Fet (2000). Primary data according to Werner (1939): Brazil, Santa Catarina, Joinville [26°18’16”S, 48°50’44”W], Wilhelm Ehrhardt leg., 1 ♀, coll. 28.09.1898; 1 ♂, coll. 07–08.1922.

Remarks on collector

Wilhelm Ehrhardt (1860–1936?) was a professional collector and taxidermist. He emigrated permanently from Hamburg in 1897 and moved to the state of Santa Catharina in South Brazil. For many years, he collected important series of vertebrate and invertebrate specimens on behalf of numerous museums and scientific institutions in Europe, e.g. the British Museum of Natural History London (BMNH), the Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt am Main (SMFD), the Zoologisches Museum München, the Zoologisches Museum Berlin (ZMB), the Zoologisches Museum Hamburg (ZMH), the Universität Göttingen, and the Königliche Nervenklinik Tübingenthe (Gutsche et al. 2007).

Bothriurus flavidus

Fig. 4

Bothriurus flavidus Kraepelin, 1911: 89, 92–93, fig. 5

Current combination

Bothriurus flavidus Kraepelin, 1911

Lectotype

(Fig. 4D–E) Juvenile (ZMH-A0000902), Argentinien [Argentina], [Buenos Aires], Bahia Blanca [38°43’10”S, 62°16’20”W], Friesen leg., ded. 22.06.1898.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 4A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0000903), Realgymnasium, locality unkown, coll. 1891.

Remarks

As type material, Kraepelin (1911) listed a juvenile from Bahia Blanca. This specimen is designated here as the lectotype. He also mentions the presence of a male without precise locality in the ZMH collections, which at that time were still housed at the “Realgymnasium” in Hamburg and only later moved to a new museum building. This specimen is a paralectotype.

Figure 4.

Bothriurus flavidus Kraepelin, 1911, male paratype (A–C), juvenile male holotype (D–E): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 5 mm (A–B, D–E), 0.5 mm (C).

Bothriurus bonariensis maculatus

Fig. 5

Bothriurus bonariensis maculatus Kraepelin, 1911: 89

Current combination

Bothriurus maculatus Kraepelin, 1911

Holotype

Subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0002230), Bolivien [Bolivia], [La Paz], Tipuani [15°33’00”S, 68°00’00”W], L. A. von Leonhard leg.

Remarks

This specimen was donated to ZMH by A. von Leonard alongside “many snakes and 469 insects from Tipuani in Bolivia” (Kraepelin 1895b). No additional data are available.

Figure 5.

Bothriurus maculatus Kraepelin, 1911, subadult male holotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 5 mm.

Bothriurus bonariensis trivittatus

Fig. 6

Bothriurus bonariensis trivittatus Werner, 1939: 358

Current combination

Bothriurus trivittatus Werner, 1939

Holotype

(Fig. 6D–F) ♀ (metasoma broken) (ZMH-A000906), Bolivia, La Paz Province, Bez. Araca [Araca District] [16°49’00”S, 67°33’00”W], 125 km südöstl. von La Paz [125 km SE of La Paz], 4200 m, 10–12.1910–1916, Charles Bock leg., ded. 12.08.1921.

Paratypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 6A–C), 1 ♀, 1 subadult ♂, 2 subadult ♀, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A000906), Same data as holotype.

Probably not types

1 subadult ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0002232), Bolivien [Bolivia], La Paz Province, Yungas District, Chulumani [16°24’30”S, 67°31’45”W], 125 km östl. von La Paz [125 km East of La Paz], 1600–2000m, 09–10.1916, Charles Bock leg., ded. 12.08.1921.

Remarks

Werner (1939) only mentioned one female from Araca with 15 pectinal teeth and this specimen should be considered as the holotype. The other specimens from the same series are paratypes by definition. Maury (1973) mentioned holotype and paratypes from Araca and cotypes from Chulumani. There is no evidence that Werner examined the material from Chulumani when naming the species and these specimens are probably not types. A specimen from the type series (ZMH-A000905) is labelled as belonging to a different species, probably by Maury who studied the material in 1970. No valid species name is, however, provided for this specimen and it may still be undescribed.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911 above.

Figure 6.

Bothriurus trivittatus Werner, 1939, male paratype (A–C), female holotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (D–E), 0.5 mm (C, F).

Genus Brachistosternus Pocock, 1893

Telegonus politus

Fig. 7

Telegonus politus L. Koch, 1867: 234–235

Current senior synonym

Brachistosternus ehrenbergii (Gervais, 1841) [synonymized by Kraepelin 1894: 216]

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A000940), Süd-Amerika [South America], Museum Godeffroy (No. 2244).

Remarks

The Museum Godeffroy was a private museum in Hamburg that existed between 1861–1885. Most arachnid specimens from its collections were integrated into the ZMH collections after the collapse of the Godeffroy estate and the closure of the Museum.

Figure 7.

Telegonus politus L. Koch, 1867 [= Brachistosternus ehrenbergii (Gervais, 1841)], female holotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Brazilobothriurus Lourenço & Monod, 2000

Brazilobothriurus pantanalensis

Fig. 8

Brazilobothriurus pantanalensis Lourenço & Monod, 2000: 146–151, figs 1–4, 7–14

Current combination

Brazilobothriurus pantanalensis Lourenço & Monod, 2000

Paratypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 8A–C, ZMH-A0000927), 1 ♂ (ZMH-A0002233), 1 ♀ (Fig. 8D–F, ZMH-A0000928), Brazil, Mato Grosso, Corumbá [19°00’33”S, 57°39’12”W], S of Fazenda Salina (today Mato Groso do Sul), 12.VI.1963, E. Kleber leg. (collected with Tityus mattogrossensis).

Remarks

The holotype and three paratypes are deposited in the MHNG, eight paratypes at the MNHN, and three paratypes in the Museum Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) (Lourenço and Monod 2000). These latter specimens were recently destroyed in the fire that consumed the MNRJ and its collections (02 September 2018).

Figure 8.

Brazilobothriurus pantanalensis Lourenço & Monod, 2000, paratype (male) (A–C), female paratype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 5 mm (A–B, D–E), 0.5 mm (C, F).

Genus Centromachetes Lönnberg, 1897

Bothriurus titschacki

Fig. 9

Bothriurus titschacki Werner, 1939: 358–359, fig. 1

Current combination

Centromachetes titschacki (Werner,1939)

Holotype

(Fig. 9A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0000907), Chile, [Biobío], Coronel [37°02’01”S, 73°08’24”W], Richard Paessler leg., ded. 15.01.1920.

Paratypes

2 ♂ (ZMH-A0002234), 1 ♀ (Fig. 9D–F, ZMH-A0000908), same data as holotype.

Paratypes

6 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0002235), Chile, [Biobío], Contulmo [38°00’56”S, 73°13’47”W], 1914–15, Richard Paessler leg., ded. 15.01.1920.

Remarks

Werner (1939) described the species based on a male for which he provided measurements (holotype: total length 49mm, truncus [mesosoma] 20mm, cephalothorax [prosoma] 6 mm, hand 9 mm, pectinal teeth 9) and he also mentioned additional specimens (paratypes).

Remarks on collector

Richard Paessler (1886–1920) was a ship’s captain, working for the firm Kosmos (Garth 1957). He published a list of birds observed in the region of Coronel in Chile when he visited the area from 1914 to 1918 (Pässler 1922).

Figure 9.

Bothriurus titschacki Werner, 1939 [= Centromachetes titschacki (Werner,1939)], male holotype (A–C), female paratype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 0.5 mm (C, F).

Genus Cercophonius Peters, 1861

Cercophonius granulosus

Fig. 10

Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908c: 102–103

Current combination

Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908

Lectotype

♀ (Fig. 9A–B, ZMH-A0000909), [Western Australia], Moonyoonooka (station 82) [28°46’51”S, 114°43’37”E], 13.07.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908.

Paralectotype

♀ (ZMH-A0002236), Western Australia, Geraldton (station 75) [28°46’44”S, 114°36’52”E], 16.07.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908c) listed 2 females from Moonyoonooka and 1 juvenile from Geraldton. Acosta (1990) noted that the material was only composed of 1 female from Moonyoonooka and 1 female from Geraldton, with no trace of a juvenile specimen. The female from Moonyoonooka erroneously considered as holotype by Weidner (1959) was designated as lectotype and the remaining specimen as paralectotype by Acosta (1990).

Remarks on collector

J. Wilhelm Michaelsen (1860–1937) was a curator at the ZMH and a specialist of Oligochaeta (Monro 1937; Sherlock and Berridge 2012). He undertook three major expeditions to Chile, South Africa and Western Australia (see Harms and Dupérré 2018 for details). In 1905, the Berlin and Hamburg Museums organized a major expedition to southwestern Australia that was led by Michaelsen and Robert Hartmeyer (Michaelsen and Hartmeyer 1907 [see travel map for detail of collecting localities]). Numerous spiders (Araneae) species were described by Simon (1908, 1909) based on the material collected during this expedition. The type specimens of these species are lodged in the Western Australian Museum (Main and Harvey 1992). Interestingly, the type specimens of Australian scorpion species described by Kraepelin based on material collected during the same expedition were not sent back to Australia but remained in the collections of the Hamburg Museum.

Figure 10.

Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908, female lectotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Cercophonius michaelseni

Fig. 11

Cercophonius michaelseni Kraepelin, 1908c: 102–103

Current combination

Cercophonius michaelseni Kraepelin, 1908

Lectotype

(Fig. 11A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0000933), [Western Australia], Boorabbin (station 95) [31°12’27”S, 120°18’31”E], 22.09.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 11C–D) subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0000933), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908c) listed 2 females and one male (but he was unsure the specimen was a male) as type material. Weidner (1959) erroneously considered the female as holotype and the male as paratype. Acosta (1990) examined three syntypes and designated the female as lectotype and the remaining specimens as paralectotypes. One specimen from the type series is deposited in the Berlin Natural History Museum (ZMB/Arach-15396).

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908 above.

Figure 11.

Cercophonius michaelseni Kraepelin, 1908, female lectotype (A–B), subadult male paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (C–D).

Cercophonius sulcatus

Fig. 12

Cercophonius sulcatus Kraepelin, 1908c: 102–103

Current combination

Cercophonius sulcatus Kraepelin, 1908

Lectotype

(Fig. 12A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0000930), [Western Australia], Torbay (station 162) [35°01’24”S, 117°39’38”E], 19.08.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908.

Paralectotypes

(Fig. 12C–D) subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0000930), same data as lectotype; ♀ (ZMH-A0001061), [Western Australia], Lunenberg (station 138) [33°20’06”S, 116°02’08”E], 22.09.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908; juvenile (ZMH-A0002237), [Western Australia], South Albany (station 167) [35°01’36”S, 117°53’01”E], 06.1905, Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905, ded. 06.1908.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908c) and Acosta (1990) listed 7 specimens as type material. Acosta (1990: 18) designated the female from Torbay as lectotype and the remaining specimens as paralectotypes. Three specimens from the original series are lodged in the collections of the Berlin Museum (ZMB): 1 juvenile (ZMB/Arach-15397), Collie (station 137); 2 juveniles (ZMB/Arach-15398), Boyanup (station 146). Lunenburg was an old settlement near the current town of Dwellingup in southwestern Australia.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908 above.

Figure 12.

Cercophonius sulcatus Kraepelin, 1908, female lectotype (A–B), subadult male paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 5 mm.

Genus Orobothriurus Maury, 1975

Bothriurus curvidigitus

Fig. 13

Bothriurus curvidigitus Kraepelin, 1911: 91, 97–98, fig. 7

Current combination

Orobothriurus curvidigitus (Kraepelin, 1911)

Lectotype

♂ (Fig. 13A–C, ZMH-A0000914), Peru, [Arequipa Province], Yura [16°07’51”S, 71°36’22”W], coll. 20.VI.1909, Museum Wiesbaden.

Paralectotype

Subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0000914), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1911) listed one male and one juvenile female from the ZMH collections. His description is not based on a specific specimen and Maury (1975b: 18–19) designated a holotype and an allotype a posteriori. As fixing a holotype after the original publication is not an accepted practice (ICZN 2018: article 73.1.3; see paragraph on Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894 above), the male is designated here as the lectotype, and the female is the paralectotype.

Figure 13.

Bothriurus curvidigitus Kraepelin, 1911 [= Orobothriurus curvidigitus (Kraepelin, 1911)], male lectotype A dorsal aspect of habitus B ventral aspect of habitus C pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 1 mm (C).

Bothriurus paessleri

Fig. 14

Bothriurus paessleri Kraepelin, 1911: 91, 98–99, figs 8–9

Current combination

Orobothriurus paessleri (Kraepelin, 1911)

Lectotype

(Fig. 14A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0000904), Peru, [Arequipa Department], [Islay Province], Kataringo [Catarindo] [17°01’08”S, 72°01’54”W], Thal 1.5 ml nördlich von Mollendo [Valley, 1.5 miles North of Mollendo], 15.11.1906, Captain Richard Paessler leg., ded. 25.02.1907.

Paralectotypes

(Fig. 14D–F) ♀ (ZMH-A0000904), same data as lectotype; subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0002231), Peru, [Arequipa Department], Thal Kataringo bei Mollendo [Valley of Catarindo, near Mollendo], 3.12.1907, Captain Richard Paessler leg., ded. 11.03.1908.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1911) listed one male and three females from Kataringo. One male (holotype), one female (allotype) and two additional females were examined and listed for the type series by Maury (1975b: 20). Ochoa et al. (2011) listed 4 syntypes (1 male and 3 females) but only three specimens could be found in the ZMH collections and the fourth is lost. For reasons given above (see paragraph on Orobothriurus curvidigitus (Kraepelin, 1911)), the male is designated here as the lectotype and the remaining specimens are paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Centromachetes titschacki Werner, 1939 above.

Figure 14.

Bothriurus paessleri Kraepelin, 1911 [= Orobothriurus paessleri (Kraepelin, 1911)], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F pro-lateral aspect of chela. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Genus Phoniocercus Pocock, 1893

Cercophonius himalayensis

Cercophonius himalayensis Lourenço, 1996: 87–89

Current senior synonym

Phoniocercus sanmartini Cekalovic, 1968 [synonymyized by Ojanguren-Affilastro et al. 2018: 474, 477]

Holotype

♂ (ZMH-A0001581), India, Himalaya, [Uttarakhand] Ukal, Pauri Garhwal, U.P., 308N-7850E [30°09’00”N, 78°50’00”E], about 45 km from the town of Pauri [30°09’10”N, 78°46’37”E] (2250 m alt.), 16.05.1958, F. Schmid leg. (ZMH, Eing. Nr. A40/96).

Remarks

Ojanguren-Affilastro et al. (2018) considered that the specimen was mislabelled (it was probably collected in Chile and not in India like it is stated on the label). They explained that the entomologist Fernand Schmid (1924–1998) collected in Uttar Pradesh (India) in 1958 (Weaver and Nimmo 1999) but was at the same time working with material collected in Chile by Luis Enrique Peña (Schmid 1958). Peña, a Chilean entomologist, was regularly supplying researchers, museums and collections around the world with arachnid and insect specimens from Chile (Barriga-Tũńon and Ugarte-Peña 1995). He probably collected the present specimen and sent it to the Zoologisches Museum Hamburg. It is plausible that a label of Schmid’s field work in India was wrongly placed inside the vial of the scorpion collected by Peña.

Family Chactidae Pocock, 1893

Type specimens belonging to eight species are present at ZMH. The type of one species was destroyed and the type of a second species is probably lost.

Genus Broteochactas Pocock, 1893

Broteochactas parvulus

Fig. 15

Broteochactas parvulus Pocock, 1897b: 364–366

Current combination

Broteochactas parvulus Pocock, 1897

Syntype

♀ (ZMH-A0001193), [Brazil], Amazonas [Amazon River], [Pará], Santarém [2°26’35”S, 54°42’30”W], [beneath rotten wood], 06.1897, F. Pickard-Cambridge leg., BMNH don.

Remarks

Pocock (1897b) mentioned several specimens collected by Pickard-Cambridge. The remaining syntypes are deposited in the BMNH (Sissom 2000: 294).

Figure 15.

Broteochactas parvulus Pocock, 1897, female syntype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect C retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 5 mm (A–B), 1 mm (C).

Genus Chactas Gervais, 1844

Iomachus exsul

Iomachus exsul Werner, 1939: 360, fig. 3

Current combination

Chactas exsul (Werner, 1939)

Holotype (lost)

Data according to original description: ♂ Costa Rica, [Limón], Ebene von Limon [plains of Puerto Limón], bei Las Mercedes [near Las Mercedes] [10°10’32”N, 83°36’41”W], 10–30 m über dem Meere [10–30 m alt.], 12–30 km vom Atlantik [12–30 km from the coast], Siguires, in Bohrlöchern [in boreholes].

Remarks

According to Sissom (2000), the holotype was destroyed during World War II. A neotype was subsequently designated by Francke and Stockwell (1987: 27). This specimen, a female from El Valle (Panama), is deposited in the collection of the Smithsonian Museum in Washington (USNM). We consider the designation of this neotype questionable for the following reasons: (1) The locality of the neotype is about 650 km from the original type locality; (2) The authors examined only five specimens in total, four females and one juvenile. Among this material, all specimens are from Panama except one female collected in the Limón Province in Costa Rica. It would have been more logical to designate this latter specimen as the neotype rather than one specimen from Panama because the site of collection was closer to the type locality. However, the authors do not provide any explanation regarding their decision to choose a specimen from Panama as neotype.

Scorpio (Chactas) fuchsii

Fig. 16

Scorpio (Chactas) fuchsii Berthold, 1846: 60–62

Current senior synonym

Chactas vanbenedenii (Gervais, 1843) [Synonymized by Kraepelin 1894: 171]

Lectotype

(Fig. 16A–B) ♂ (ZMH-A0003050), Colombia, [Cauca], Popayán [2°26’17”N, 76°36’47”W], coll. 1893, Museum Göttingen.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 16C–D) ♀ (ZMH-A0003050), same data as holotype

Remarks

A label in the jar mentions “Chactas vanbenedenii (Gervais), Original-Exemplar zu Chactas fuchsii Berthold Kraepelin”, confirming that these two specimens are the original series examined by Berthold (1946). The male is designated here as lectotype and the female is a paralectotype.

Figure 16.

Chactas fuchsii Berthold, 1846 [= Chactas vanbenedenii (Gervais, 1843)], male lectotype (A–B), paralectotype (female) (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Chactas lepturus intermedius

Fig. 17

Chactas lepturus intermedius Kraepelin, 1912b: 64, 67

Current senior synonym

Chactas lepturus Thorell, 1876 [Synonymized by Lourenço 1997h: 84–85]

Lectotype

(Fig. 17A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0003047), Columbien [Colombia], between Boca del Monte and Tambo [near Bogota] [4°41’28”N, 74°21’11”W], 1900 m, Otto Fuhrmann leg., ded. 10.1911.

Paralectotypes

2 ♀, 1 subadult ♂ (Fig. 17C–D), 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0001869), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1912b) originally described this taxon as a subspecies of C. lepturus and listed the type locality as “Boca del Monte bei Bogota in Kolumbien, Ostkordillere, in 2400 Höhe”. Although the altitude is different than the one mentioned on the label, the locality is the same. The present specimens are considered here as types. One female is designated as the lectotype and the others are paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

Otto Fuhrmann (1871–1945) was a Swiss parasitologist specializing in helminthology (Delachaux and Baer 1914). He travelled to Columbia in 1910 with Eugene Mayor (1876–1976). They stayed in La Camelia (part of the coffee plantation owned by Karl Bimberg, German consul in Medellin, and located south west of Angelopolis) from August to September 1910 and visited Bogota and its surroundings in October 1910 (Fuhrmann and Mayor 1914; see map p. 117).

Figure 17.

Chactas lepturus intermedius [= Chactas lepturus Thorell, 1876], female lectotype (A–B), subadult male paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Chactas lepturus major

Fig. 18A–B

Chactas lepturus major Kraepelin, 1912b: 67

Current combination

Chactas major Kraepelin, 1912 [elevated to species status by Lourenço 1999: 127]

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A0002238), Columbien [Columbia], [Antioquia], La Camelia [6°06’00”N, 75°44’00”W], 1820 m alt., Otto Fuhrmann leg., ded. 10.1911.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1912b) described this taxon as a subspecies of Chactas lepturus (Chactas lepturus major) and reported the type locality as “Angelopolis in Kolombien, Zentralkordillere, in 1890 Höhe; Gundua in Kolombien, Ostkordillere in 950 m Höhe”. The same locality was cited again in a subsequent publication (Kraepelin 1914c). Sissom (2000) mentioned holotype and paratypes but he was not sure whether these specimens were present in the ZMH collection. Only one female is present in the ZMH collections and its primary data differ from the original description. We cannot exclude a transcription error in museum labels or Kraepelin’s original publication and since no other specimens of this species are available, the given specimen is treated as the holotype until more data become available. This specimen morphology is congruent with Kraepelin’s definition of C. major (pectinal tooth count 8-8, body length 56 mm) and suitable to diagnose the species.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Chactas lepturus intermedius above.

Chactas ozendai

Fig. 18 C–D

Chactas ozendai Lourenço, 1999: 127, 129, figs. 8–10

Current combination

Chactas ozendai Lourenço, 1999 [Chactidae]

Holotype

♂ (ZMH-A0003359), Columbia, Department of Antioquia, Angelopolis [6°06’41”N, 75°42’37”W], in wet forest at high altitude, 1860 m, under a log, 10.01.1987, O. Vilalobos leg., W. R. Lourenço don.

Figure 18.

Chactas lepturus major Kraepelin, 1912, female holotype (A–B) [= Chactas major Kraepelin, 1912]. Chactas ozendai Lourenço, 1999, male holotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 1 mm.

Chactas reticulatus

Fig. 19

Chactas reticulatus Kraepelin, 1912b: 64–66 [Chactas]

Current combination

Chactas reticulatus Kraepelin, 1912

Lectotype

(Fig. 19A–B) ♂ (ZMH-A0002124), Columbien [Columbia], [Antioquia], Angelopolis [6°06’41”N, 75°42’37”W], 1820 m alt., Otto Fuhrmann leg., ded. 10.1911.

Paralectotypes

(Fig. 19C–D) ♀ (ZMH-A0002124), same data as lectotype; 1 ♀, 1 subadult ♀, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0003048), Columbien [Columbia], [Antioquia], La Camelia [6°06’00”N, 75°44’00”W], Otto Fuhrmann leg., 10.1911.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1912b, 1914c) listed the type locality as “Angelopolis in der Zentralcordillere Kolombien, in 1820 Höhe, zusammen with Ch. lepturus major”. Accordingly, the lectotype was chosen among the specimens from this locality. The remaining syntypes are designated here as paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Chactas lepturus intermedius above.

Figure 19.

Chactas reticulatus Kraepelin, 1912, male lectotype (A–B), female paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Chactas setosus

Fig. 20

Chactas setosus Kraepelin, 1912b: 59–60, 62–64

Current combination

Chactas setosus Kraepelin, 1912

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 20A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 20C–D, ZMH-A0003049), Venezuela, coll. V.1912, BMNH don.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1912b) listed 13 specimens in the type series and the type locality as “Venezuela (Merida, Chama)”. He mentioned that the type material was housed in the British Museum. The two specimens in Hamburg are certainly part of this series. Sissom (2000) also mentioned five males and 13 females in the BMNH, and the two specimens in the ZMH collections.

Figure 20.

Chactas setosus Kraepelin, 1912, male syntype (A–B), female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Teuthraustes Simon, 1878

Chactas amazonicus

Fig. 21A–C

Chactas amazonicus Simon, 1880b: 384–386

Current combination

Teuthraustes amazonicus (Simon, 1880)

Syntype

♂ (ZMH-A0002125), Peru, [Loreto], Pevas [3°19’58”S, 71°49’02”W], [M. Nathan leg.], E. Simon don., ded 12.1911.

Remarks

According to Sissom (2000), three males from the type series are held at the MNHN.

Teuthraustes ohausi

Fig. 21D–F

Teuthraustes ohausi Kraepelin, 1912b: 77–78

Current combination

Teuthraustes ohausi Kraepelin, 1912

Holotype

♂ (ZMH-A0003060), Ecuador, [Loja], Catamayo [3°59’11”S, 79°21’32”W], 15.12.1902, Friedrich Ohaus leg.

Remarks on collector

Friedrich Ohaus (1864–1946) was a renowned entomologist who published more than 170 publications on beetles (Strube 2009). Although he was trained and worked as a medical doctor, he has held the interim administration of the Natural History Museum in Mainz in 1923–1924, and again in 1941 until his death in 1946. He joined several expeditions to South America as a ship’s doctor which allowed him to amass extensive material for his research (Nissen 1952). He visited Brazil (especially Petropolis) from August 1898 to March 1899, Ecuador from August 1904 to April 1906 (travelling over the Cordilleras from Rio Villano to Cururay and Napo to Iquitos and then down the Amazon to Para), and Brazil again in 1926 (São Paulo, Porto Epitacio, Itatiya). The collection date mentioned on the label (1902) is not congruent with the recorded dates of his trip to Ecuador and may be a lapsus.

Figure 21.

Chactas amazonicus Simon, 1880 [= Teuthraustes amazonicus (Simon, 1880)], male syntype (A–C). Teuthraustes ohausi Kraepelin, 1912, male holotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Heterochactas wittii

Fig. 22

Heterochactas wittii Kraepelin, 1896b: 141–144, fig. 23–25

Current combination

Teuthraustes witti (Kraepelin, 1896)

Lectotype

(Fig. 22A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0002182), Ecuador, Province Loja, Piscobamba [4°14’47”S, 79°17’56”W], 1893, Ernesto Witt leg., Walter, ded. 10.12.1895.

Paralectotypes

1 ♂, 1 ♀ (Fig. 22D–F), 1 subadult ♂, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0001870), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

One male is designated as lectotype, the remaining specimens are paralectotypes.

Figure 22.

Heterochactas wittii Kraepelin, 1896 [= Teuthraustes witti (Kraepelin, 1896)], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (D–E), 5 mm (A–B, F), 1 mm (C).

Family Diplocentridae Karsch, 1880

One type specimen is present at ZMH.

Genus Didymocentrus Kraepelin, 1905

Diplocentrus hasethi

Fig. 23

Diplocentrus hasethi Kraepelin, 1896b: 130–131, fig. 11

Current combination

Didymocentrus hasethi (Kraepelin, 1896)

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A0001201), Curaçao [12°10’54”N, 68°59’32”W], C. G. de Haseth leg., ded. 4.10.1895.

Remarks

Francke (1978: 13) transfered Diplocentrus hasethi to the genus Didymocentrus.

Remarks on collector

C. G. de Haseth also collected insects, spiders, millipedes and crabs from Curaçao that he sent to the Hamburg Museum (Kraepelin 1909: IV).

Figure 23.

Diplocentrus hasethi Kraepelin, 1896 [= Didymocentrus hasethi (Kraepelin, 1896)], female holotype A dorsal aspect of habitus B ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Family Hemiscorpiidae Pocock, 1893

Type specimens belonging to three species are present at ZMH.

Genus Hemiscorpius Peters, 1861

Hemiscorpius lepturus

Fig. 24

Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861a: 426–427

Current combination

Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 24A–B, 2321), 1 ♀ (Fig. 24C–D, 2322) (ZMH-A000894), Irak, [Mendeli], Baghdad [33°20’26”N, 44°24’03”E], 1893 [Peterman leg.], Wilhelm Peters don. (ZMB).

Remarks

Peters (1861a) described the genus Hemiscorpius. The first time the nominal species is cited in the text, it is incorrectly spelled as Hemiscorpion lepturus but we follow the modified spelling. Four syntypes (ZMB/Arach-43, two males, two females) are lodged in the ZMB collections.

Figure 24.

Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861, male syntype (A–B), female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Hemiscorpius maindroni

Fig. 25A–B

Hemiscorpius maindroni Kraepelin, 1900: 16

Current combination

Hemiscorpius maindroni Kraepelin, 1900

Syntypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 25A–B), 1 ♀, 2 subadult ♂, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A000944), Oman, Mascat [Muscat] [23°35’02”N, 58°24’28”E], coll. 20.08.1900, MNHN (Paris) don.

Remarks

Many additional syntypes are present in the MNHN collections. A lectotype may be chosen from this series as part of a future taxonomic review.

Hemiscorpius somalicus

Fig. 25C–D

Hemiscorpius somalicus Lourenço, 2011: 279–283, fig. 2–4, 6–13

Current combination

Hemiscorpius somalicus Lourenço, 2011

Holotype

♂ (ZMH-A0001067), Somalia, [Bari], 5 km E of Meleden [Meeladeen] [10°25’59”N, 49°48’38”E] Road to Scusciuban, IV.1982, P. M. Brignoli leg.

Figure 25.

Hemiscorpius maindroni Kraepelin, 1900, female syntype (A–B). Hemiscorpius somalicus Lourenço, 2011, male holotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (C–D).

Family Heteroscorpionidae Kraepelin, 1905

Type specimens belonging to two species are present at ZMH.

Genus Heteroscorpion Birula, 1903

Heteroscorpion kaii

Heteroscorpion kaii Lourenço & Goodman, 2009: 116–122, fig. 1–8 (illustration of habitus: 117)

Current combination

Heteroscorpion kaii Lourenço & Goodman, 2009

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A0002239), Madagascar, Toliara Province, Fort Dauphin Region, Grande Lavasoa (= Forêt de Lavasoa) (Tolagnora), estimated at 25.0833°S, 46.7417°E, 29.XI.2006, under bark, Kai Schütte leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A11/09).

Hadogenes opisthacanthoides

Fig. 26

Hadogenes opisthacanthoides Kraepelin, 1896b: 136–138, fig. 16–18

Current combination

Heteroscorpion opisthacanthoides (Kraepelin, 1896)

Lectotype

(Fig. 26C–D) juvenile ♂ (ZMH-A0001069), NE Madagascar [North-East Madagascar], Nossi Comba [Nosy Komba] [13°27’43”S, 48°20’54”E], Paul Frey leg., ded. 27.09.1895.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 26A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0001069), same as lectotype

Remarks

Fet et al. (2000) listed the juvenile male as holotype and the female as the paratype. However, no specimen is clearly designated as the holotype in the original description. For reasons given above (see paragraph on Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894), the male must be considered as lectotype and the female is a paralectotype.

Remarks on collector

Some general information about the travel and collecting made by Paul Frey in Madagascar are given in Brancsik (1893).

Figure 26.

Heteroscorpion opisthacanthoides Kraepelin, 1896, female paralectotype (A–B), juvenile male lectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Family Hormuridae Laurie, 1896

Type specimens belonging to 21 species are present at ZMH. A species with specimens previously considered as types is also reported here.

Genus Cheloctonus Pocock, 1892

Cheloctonus glaber

Fig. 27A–C

Cheloctonus glaber Kraepelin, 1896b: 134–136, fig. 8

Current combination

Cheloctonus glaber Kraepelin, 1896

Lectotype

(Fig. 27A–C) ♀ (ZMH-A0000937), Deutsch SW Africa [Namibia], O. Schneider leg., ded. 04.07.1896.

Paralectotypes

1 subadult ♀, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0003127), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1896b: 135) mentioned 6 specimens (male and female) in the original description. He also pointed out that the species was collected in sympatry with the buthid Uroplectes triangulifer (Thorell, 1876). Only three specimens are currently registered in the ZMH collection and the status of the remaining specimens is unknown. They are also not present in the ZMB collections where some of Kraepelin’s types are deposited. The adult female is designated here as the lectotype and the remaining specimens are paralectotypes.

Genus Hadogenes Kraepelin, 1894

Ischnurus troglodytes

Fig. 27D–F

Ischnurus troglodytes Peters, 1861: 513

Current combination

Hadogenes troglodytes (Peters, 1861)

Syntype

♀ (ZMH-A0000919), Mozambique, [Tete Province], Tette [Tete] [16°09’23”S, 33°35’12”E], X.1913, ZMB don.

Remarks

According to Peters original description, the type series comprises several specimens, both males and females. The specimen present at ZMH was donated by the Berlin Museum. Accordingly, the major part of the syntype series is currently located in the ZMB collection and comprises seven specimens: 2 juveniles (ZMB/Arach-44), 1 female (ZMB/Arach-2311), 1 male (ZMB/Arach-2313), 1 female (ZMB/Arach-2314), 1 female (ZMB/Arach-2315), and 1 juvenile (ZMB/Arach-2316).

Figure 27.

Cheloctonus glaber Kraepelin, 1896, female lectotype (A–C). Ischnurus troglodytes Peters, 1861 [= Hadogenes troglodytes (Peters, 1861)], female syntype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 20mm (D–E), 5 mm (F), 1 mm (C).

Genus Hormurus Thorell, 1876

Hormurus boholiensis

Fig. 28A–B

Hormurus boholiensis Kraepelin, 1914d: 333

Current combination

Hormurus boholiensis Kraepelin, 1914

Lectotype

(Fig. 28A–B) ♀, Philippines, [Central Visayas], Bohol [9°50’00”N, 124°10’00”E], 10.1863, ZMK 3938 [Carl Gottfried Semper leg.].

Paralectotype

♀, same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1914d) mentioned that the two type specimens were poorly preserved: “Von dieser Arte liegen mir nur zwei schlecht erhaltene ♀ des Hamburger Museum vor.”. H. boholiensis was considered a junior synonym of Liocheles australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) by L. E. Koch (1977: 161). Monod (2011b) revalidated the species as Liocheles boholiensis (Kraepelin, 1914). Monod and Prendini (2015) subsequently removed the genus Hormurus from synonymy with Liocheles and confirmed the species boholiensis as belonging to Hormurus. The larger female of this series was designated as lectotype by Monod (2011b: 726)

Remarks on collector

Although not mentioned on the original labels, the specimens were probably collected by Carl Gottfried Semper (1832–1893), a German malacologist who obtained a Ph.D. degree at the University of Würzburg in 1856 and continued his studies in Kiel. An inheritance from his father allowed him to pay for a seven years trip to the Philippines and Palau (1858–1865) (Schuberg 1880). After returning to Germany, he was appointed lecturer (1866) and professor (1869) at the University of Würzburg. He visited Bohol in 1863, which corresponds to the collecting date of the two present specimens.

Ischnurus caudicula

Fig. 28C–D

Ischnurus caudicula L. Koch, 1867: 237–239

Current senior synonym

Hormurus waigiensis (Gervais, 1843) [synonymized by Kraepelin 1901e: 272]

Holotype

Subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0002225), Australien [Australia], Brisbane [27°28’04”S, 153°01’41”E], coll. 1886, Museum Godeffroy (no. 244).

Remarks on collector

The specimen was almost certainly collected by Amalie Dietrich (1821–1891) who was collecting in Queendland on behalf of the Godeffroy estate from 1863 to 1872. She was the only woman ever hired for such a position. Dietrich collected extensively in the wider Brisbane region after her arrival but the exact locality data remain unknown.

Figure 28.

Hormurus boholiensis Kraepelin, 1914, female lectotype (A–B). Ischnurus caudicula L. Koch, 1867 [= Hormurus waigiensis (Gervais, 1843)], subadult female holotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Hormurus karschii keyensis

Fig. 29

Hormurus karschii keyensis Kraepelin, 1914d: 331

Current senior synonym

Hormurus karschii Keyserling, 1885 [synonymized by L. E. Koch, 1977: 173]

Lectotype

(Fig. 29A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0002226), [Indonesia], [Maluku], Key Inseln [Kai Islands] [5°45’00”S, 132°43’30”E], Hugo Merton leg., ded. 2.11.1908.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 29C–D) subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0002226), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

The adult female is designated as the lectotype and the second specimen as the paralectotype.

Remarks on collector

Hugo Merton (1879–1940) was a German zoologist and Professor of Zoology at the University of Heidelberg. In 1907–1908, he conducted a zoological expedition to the Aroe and Kai Islands with Jean Roux (1876–1939), who was a Swiss zoologist from Basel (Roux 1910; Merton 1911). They travelled via Singapore and Java, finally arriving in Dobo in January 1908. They surveyed the Aru Islands for four months and the Kai Islands for another month (May–June). The present specimens were probably collected in 1908.

Figure 29.

Hormurus karschii keyensis Kraepelin, 1914 [= Hormurus karschii Keyserling, 1885], female lectotype (A–B), subadult male paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Ischnurus neocaledonicus

Fig. 30A–B

Ischnurus neocaledonicus Simon, 1877b: 237–238

Current combination

Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877)

Paratype

♀ (ZMH-A0000915), Neu Caledonien [New Caledonia], 20.08.1900, Bougier leg., MNHN don. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A27/03).

Remarks

Fet (2000a) listed a holotype in the MNHN (Paris) and a paratype in the Hamburg collections. The holotype is considered lost by Monod (2011b: 743). The species Ischnurus neocaledonicus was recently removed from synonymy with Liocheles waigiensis (Monod, 2011b: 724) and is now part of the genus Hormurus, which was recently revalidated by Monod and Prendini (2015).

Remarks on collector

Morat (2010) listed Bougier as a colonisation officer in New Caledonia, where he collected plants for the Paris Museum.

Figure 30.

Ischnurus neocaledonicus Simon, 1877 [= Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877)], female paratype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Hormurus papuanus

Fig. 31

Hormurus papuanus Kraepelin, 1914d: 333 [Hormurus]

Current combination

Hormurus papuanus Kraepelin, 1914

Lectotype

(Fig. 31A–C) ♂, [Papua New Guinea], SW Küste New Pommern [SW coast of New Britain], Liebliche Inseln [Arawe Islands] [6°06’07”S, 148°59’53”E], 11–12.12.1908, 05.01.1909, 26–31.01.1909, (2 T. under Steinen [2 specimens under rocks], 2 T. in moderndem Holz [two specimens in decaying logs]), Georg Duncker leg. (S40), Hamburg Südsee Expedition.

Paralectotype

1 ♂, 1 ♀ (Fig. 31D–F), 5 ♀ , 4 subadult ♂, 2 subadult ♀, 7 juveniles, same data as lectotype; 1 ♂, [Papua New Guinea], New Pommern [New Britain], Möre Hafen [Kandrian] [6°11‘24”S, 149°32‘51”E], Unterlauf des Wasserfall-Fl. [downstream of waterfall], 13–14.XII.1908, 20–24.II.1909, Georg Duncker leg. (334), Hamburg Südsee-Expedition.

Remarks

Kraepelin mentioned in the original description 23 specimens from Neu Pommern and Neu Guinea. Among this material, two specimens from Finschafen (Papua New Guinea mainland) belong to a different undescribed species and are thus not considered type specimens of H. papuanus. This new species will be described in a forthcoming paper about the genus Hormurus in Papua New Guinea (Monod et al. in prep). An additional specimen from Aru Islands was also mentioned in the original description but it is not considered here as a type. The type locality of species H. papuanus is thus restricted to the specimens collected on the SW coast of New Britain (Arawe Islands and Kandrian village).

Giltay (1931: 10) considered H. papuanus as a subspecies of H. caudicula, while L. E. Koch (1977: 173) regarded it as a junior synonym of Liocheles karschii (Keyserling, 1885). Monod (2000: 113) revalidated the species and designated lectotype and paralectotypes from this series. A complete redescription will be provided in the publication mentionned above (Monod et al. in prep).

Remarks on collector

(Paul) Georg (Egmont) Duncker (1870–1953) was a German zoologist and ichthyologist. He was employed by the Hamburg Zoological Museum in 1907 and became curator/professor in 1928. He was a member of the Hamburg Südsee-Expedition (1908–1910) in the Bismarck Archipelago and collected on behalf of the ZMH (Thilenius 1914).

Figure 31.

Hormurus papuanus Kraepelin, 1914, male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 2 mm (C, F).

Hormurus sarasini

Fig. 32

Hormurus sarasini Kraepelin, 1914d: 332, 335–336

Current senior synonym

Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877) [synonymized by Monod 2011b: 723, 743]

Paralectotypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 32A–C, ZMH-A00001059), 1 ♀ (Fig. 32D–F, ZMH-A00001060), 1 female, 2 subadult ♀, 2 juveniles, New Caledonia, Northern Province, Tchalabel [20°24’00”S, 164°22’00”E], Fritz Sarasin leg., ded. 02.1913.

Remarks

Most specimens of the type series are deposited in the Naturhistorisches Museum zu Basel, Switzerland (NMB) (Forcart 1961). Lothar Forcart listed 34 specimens in the type catalogue. He designated a lectotype male and 33 paralecotypes (six males and 27 females). The seven ZMH specimens are therefore paralectotypes. Monod (2011b) considered H. sarasini as a junior synonym of H. neocaledonicus.

Remarks on collector

Karl Friedrich Sarasin (1859–1942) was a Swiss zoologist and explorer. Together with his cousin Paul Benedikt Sarasin (1856–1929), he led several expeditions in Sulawesi, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Sinai and Tunisia to collect botanical, ethnographical and zoological material. He travelled to New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands with Jean Roux in 1910–1912 (Sarasin 1931).

Figure 32.

Hormurus sarasini Kraepelin, 1914 [= Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877)], male paralectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Genus Iomachus Pocock, 1893

Iomachus laeviceps

Iomachus laeviceps Pocock, 1890: 242–244, pl. XII, fig. 1, 1a

Current combination

Iomachus laeviceps Pocock, 1890

Not types

1 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0000876), [India], [Western Ghats], [Tamil Nadu], Nilgiri Hills [11°15’10”N, 76°30’48”E], 1’000 feet [ca. 305 m], 6.06.1897, J. R. Henderson, BMNH don.

Remarks

These specimens, listed by Weidner (1959: 101) as paratypes, are not part of the type series. Iomachus laeviceps was described from a series of specimens collected in Madras by E. Thurston. Pocock mentioned two specimens from Anamalai Hills, Coimbatore that he described later as Iomachus punctulatus (Pocock, 1897b). The two specimens here belong to the species I. laeviceps and are not part of either series, although they were donated to Kraepelin by the British Museum. The rest of the present series (one male, one female, four juveniles) is present in the BMNH collections.

Iomachus politus occidentalis

Fig. 33A–B

Iomachus politus occidentalis Lourenço, 2003: 138–141, 146, fig. 1–7

Current combination

Iomachus politus occidentalis Lourenço, 2003

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A0001083), Western Africa, Congo (Ex-Zaire) [Democratic Republic of the Congo], [Tshuapa], Befori [0°10’28”N, 22°22’52”E], 12.1963, C. Alluaud leg.

Genus Liocheles Sundevall, 1833

Hormurus australasiae brevidigitatus

Fig. 33C–D

Hormurus australasiae brevidigitatus Werner, 1936: 190

Current senior synonym

Liocheles australasiae (Sundevall, 1775) [synonymized by Monod 2011b: 726]

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A0000934), [Indonesia], Java, Buitenzorg [Bogor] [6°35’40”S, 106°47’21”E], Botanischer Garten [Botanical Garden], 21.01.1925, Hans Winkler leg.

Remarks on collector

Hans Winkler (1877–1945) was a German botanist who first coined the term «genome» from the combination of the words «gene» and «chromosome» (Winkler 1920). He travelled to Indonesia (Dutch East Indies at the time) in 1903/04 and worked in Bogor for several months. He subsequently became Professor at the University in Hamburg and Director of the Botanical Garden. In 1924–1925 he visited Indonesia a second time with the aim to collect material on behalf of his institute (Dammerman 1945). He arrived in Bogor in September 1924, departed for Borneo in late October 1924 (Winkler 1927a, b), and returned to Bogor in late Febuary 1925. He collected at Situ Gunong (S. slope of Gunung Gedeh) in Bogor.

Figure 33.

Iomachus politus occidentalis Lourenço, 2003, female holotype (A–B). Hormurus australasiae brevidigitatus Werner, 1936 [= Liocheles australasiae (Sundevall, 1775)], female holotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Opisthacanthus Peters, 1861
Subgenus Monodopisthacanthus Lourenço, 2001

Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) andohahela

Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) andohahela Lourenço, 2014a: 181–185, figs 5–19 (with illustration of habitus)

Current combination

Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) andohahela Lourenço, 2014

Paratypes

1 ♂, 1 ♀, 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0002222), Madagascar, Toliara Province, [Atsimo-Andrefana Region], Parc National d’Andohahela [Andohahela National Park] [24°36’03”S, 46°41’58”E], S Vohibaka, Parcel 1, forêt humide [mesic forest], 560 m alt., X.1971, C. J. M. Betsch leg., RCP 225 (ZMH Eing. Nr. A2/15).

Remarks

The holotype and three paratypes are deposited in the MNHN collections.

Opisthacanthus madagascariensis

Fig. 34

Opisthacanthus madagascariensis Kraepelin, 1894: 120, 125–126, pl. II, fig. 44, 51

Current combination

Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) madagascariensis Kraepelin, 1894

Lectotype

♀ (Fig. 34A–C, ZMH-A0000918), Madagascar, [Mahajanga Province], [Boeny Region], Majunga [15°43’00”S, 46°19’00”E], 1893, Lübeck Völkerkundemuseum.

Paralectotype

♀ (ZMH-A0001871), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1894) mentioned an additional specimen from the Berlin Museum in the type material. According to the ZMB online catalogue, a paratype from Majunga is present in their collection (ZMB/Arach-3823). This specimen is thus part of the type series and a syntype. One specimen is designated as lectotype and the other as paralectotype.

Remarks on collector

These specimens were probably collected by P. Frey. Brancsik (1893) mentioned that Frey reached Nosy Bé from Majunga.

Figure 34.

Opisthacanthus madagascariensis Kraepelin, 1894, female syntype A dorsal aspect of habitus B ventral aspect of habitus C retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (C).

Subgenus Nepabellus Francke, 1974

Opisthacanthus aequispinus

Fig. 35A–C

Opisthacanthus aequispinus Kraepelin, 1911: 75, 80–81

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) diremptus (Karsch, 1879) [synonymized by Lourenço 1987: 909]

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 35A–C), 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0001065), [South Africa], Südliche Kaplande [S Western Cape], Zwarteberg Pass [Swartberg Pass] [33°20’59”S, 22°03’00”E], 1.04.1909, S. Afer leg., Museum Amsterdam don.

Ischnurus asper

Fig. 35D–F

Ischnurus asper Peters, 1861b: 513–514

Current combination

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) asper (Peters, 1861).

Syntype

♀ (Fig. 35D–F, ZMH-A0000917), Mozambique, Inhambane [23°51’54”S, 35°23’00”E], Cotype des Originals [co-type of the original], 05.1911, W. Peters leg (ZMB).

Remarks

Three syntypes from Inhambane are present in the ZMB collections (ZMB/Arach-47, ZMB/Arach-7241). Peters did not provide the number of specimens in his original description. Although referred to as a co-type on the label, the specimen in the ZMH likely belongs to the type series (matching locality and referred to as a gift from the original author) and is thus considered a syntype.

Figure 35.

Opisthacanthus aequispinnus Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus diremptus (Karsch, 1879)], male syntype (A–C). Ischnurus asper Peters, 1861 [= Opisthacanthus asper (Peters, 1861)], female syntype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Opisthacanthus fischeri

Fig. 36

Opisthacanthus fischeri Kraepelin, 1911: 74, 79

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) rugiceps Pocock, 1897 [synonymized by Lourenço 1987: 915]

Lectotype

(Fig. 36A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001092), Deutsch-Ostafrika [German East Africa = Kenya-Tanzania border], Nguruman [1°54’09”S, 36°00’18”E], Gebiet des Kilimandjaro [Kilimanjaro area], Maragoya-Tembo [3°26’30”S, 37°15’37”E], 19.01.1884, Gustav A. Fischer leg. (ZMH, typ. Kat. Scorpio. Nr. 79 (9211–9212)).

Paralectotype

1 ♂ (ZMH-A0001066), 1 ♀ (Fig. 36D–F, ZMH-A0001091) same data as lectotype.

Remarks

A male is designated as lectotype and the two remaining specimens as paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

Gustav Adolf Fischer (1848–1886) was a German explorer who practiced as a military physician. In October 1882, he travelled to western Africa with the support of the Geographical Society of Hamburg (Fischer 1885a, b). He reached the Maasai Country from the mouth of the Pangani River, traveling all the way up to Lake Naivasha and the southern foothills of Kilimandjaro. He returned to Germany in November 1883.

Figure 36.

Opisthacanthus fischeri Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus rugiceps Pocock, 1897], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Opisthacanthus minor

Fig. 37

Opisthacanthus minor Kraepelin, 1911: 75, 79–80

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [synonymized by Lourenço 1987: 905]

Syntypes

1 subadult ♂ (Fig. 37A–B), 1 subadult ♀ (Fig. 37C–D), 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0001093), [South Africa], Kapland [Western Cape], Frenchhoek in der Nähe von Kapstadt [Franschhoek Valley near Cape Town] [33°54’38”S, 19°07’11”E], 01.04.1909, S. Afer leg., Museum Amsterdam don.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1911) mentioned the presence of specimens von Mphome, Transvaal (South Africa) in the Berlin Museum. Fet (2000a) listed 7 syntypes in the ZMB collections. The specimens have registration numbers ZMB/Arach-7319 and ZMB/Arach-7321.

Figure 37.

Opisthacanthus minor Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus validus Thorell, 1876], subadult male syntype (A–B), subadult female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthacanthus obscurus

Fig. 38

Opisthacanthus obscurus Kraepelin, 1911: 76, 81–82

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) capensis Thorell, 1876 [synonymized by Hewitt 1918: 169]

Lectotype

(Fig. 38A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001095), [South Africa], Süd Kapland [Western Cape], Knysna [34°02’10”S, 23°02’49”E], 01.04.1909, Museum Amsterdam.

Paralectotypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 38D–E, ZMH-A0001094), 3 ♀ (ZMH-A0002221), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

A male from the syntype series is designated here as the lectotype and the four remaining specimens are designated as paralectotypes.

Figure 38.

Opisthacanthus obscurus Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus capensis Thorell, 1876], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus ochripes

Fig. 39

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus ochripes Kraepelin, 1911: 82

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [synonymized by Lourenço 1987: 905]

Lectotype

(Fig. 39A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001097), [South Africa], Transvaal, 04.04.1909, Museum Amsterdam.

Paralectotypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 39D–E, ZMH-A0001096), 1 ♂, 2 subadult ♀, 1 juvenile, same data as lectotype.

Remarks

A male from the syntype series is designated here as lectotype and the remaining specimens as paralectotypes. Opisthacanthus transvaalicus ochripes and O. transvaalicus Kraepelin, 1911 (see below) are currently considered junior synonyms of O. validus. However, the morphology of chelal fingers in males (the length of fingers compare to the manus and the lobe and notch of the cutting edges) are markedly different in these two taxa (see Fig. 39C and 41C), indicating that they should be considered as distinct species. Therefore at least one of these taxa should be separated from O. validus, and possibly both. However, examination of the type specimens of O. validus is necessary to unambiguously clarify the taxonomic status of O. transvaalicus and O. transvaalicus ochripes. For the time being, both taxa are left in the synonymy of O. validus.

Figure 39.

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus ochripes Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus validus Thorell, 1876], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Opisthacanthus africanus pallidus

Fig. 40

Opisthacanthus africanus pallidus Lourenço, 2003: 141–146, fig. 14–17

Current combination

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) africanus pallidus Lourenço, 2003

Holotype

(Fig. 40D–F) ♀ (ZMH-A0001085), Western Africa, Angola, Luanda, Zovo, Mabete, Caungula (8.07°S, 18.08°E, alt. 850m), 17–19.07.1962, trou d’arbre debout [hole in standing tree], A. de Barros Machado leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A28/03).

Paratypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 40A–C), 4 juveniles (ZMH-A0001084), same as holotype (ZMH Eing. Nr. A29/03).

Figure 40.

Opisthacanthus africanus pallidus Lourenço, 2003, male paratype (A–C), female holotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus

Fig. 41

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus Kraepelin, 1911: 77, 82–83

Current senior synonym

Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [synonymized by Lourenço 1987: 905]

Lectotype

(Fig. 41A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001099), [South Africa], Transvaal, 11.04.1909, Museum Amsterdam don.

Paralectotypes

2 ♂, 1 ♀ (Fig. 41D–E, ZMH-A0001098), 3 ♀, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0001565), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

A male from the syntype series is designated here as lectotype and the remaining specimens as paralectotypes. See paragraph on O. transvaalicus ochripes above.

Remarks on collector

The specimens were probably collected by S. Afer for the Amerstam Museum. No further data are available.

Figure 41.

Opisthacanthus transvaalicus Kraepelin, 1911 [= Opisthacanthus validus Thorell, 1876], male lectotype (A–C), female paralectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 5 mm (C, F).

Genus Palaeocheloctonus Lourenço, 1996

Palaeocheloctonus pauliani

Fig. 42

Palaeocheloctonus pauliani Lourenço, 1996: 37–38, fig. 95–104, 159, 161, 162

Current combination

Palaeocheloctonus pauliani Lourenço, 1996

Paratype

1 ♂ (ZMH-A00001064), Madagascar Sud-Ouest [SW Madagascar], Province Tuléar, [Atsimo-Andrefana Region], Plateau Mahafaly, près de Behahitso [near Beahitse] [24°10’00”S, 44°26’00”E], 90m alt., zone à dolines [sinkhole area], haut fourré arbustif à Euphorbes et Didièréacées [vine and shrub thicket with Euphorbia and Didiereaceae], chasse à vue [on sight collecting], sous bois mort et pierres [under logs and stones], 01.1966, P. Griveaud leg. (ZMH Eing. A75/98).

Remarks

The holotype and one paratype are deposited in the MNHN in Paris, and two additional paratypes are in the MHNG collections.

Figure 42.

Palaeocheloctonus pauliani Lourenço, 1996, male paratype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect C retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (C).

Family Scorpionidae Latreille, 1802

Type specimens belonging to 20 species are present at ZMH. The specimens for three species previously considered as types are reported here as non-type material.

Genus Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828

Scorpio phipsonii

Fig. 43

Scorpio phipsonii Pocock, 1893: 307–310

Current combination

Heterometrus phipsonii (Pocock, 1893)

Probably not type

♂ (ZMH-A000939), Indien [India], BMNH don, ded. VI.1894.

Remarks

Pocock (1893) reported several specimens from Madras, as well as one male from Madras and one female from Sheravoy Hills; both collected by Thurston. There is no evidence that the present specimen belongs to this material and we do not consider it part of the type series.

Figure 43.

Scorpio phipsonii Pocock, 1893 [= Heterometrus phipsonii (Pocock,1893)], male, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Palamnaeus thorellii

Fig. 44

Palamnaeus thorellii Pocock, 1892: 40–41

Current combination

Heterometrus thorellii (Pocock, 1892) [Synonymized by Couzijn 1981: 117 to Heterometrus bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841), removed from synonymy by Kovařík (2004: 44)]

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 44A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 44C–D, ZMH-A0002219), [Myanmar], [Bago Region], Indien?, Tharrawaddy [17°39’14”N, 95°47’17”E], VI.1897, Eugene William Oates leg., BMNH don.

Remarks

Pocock described Palamnaeus thorelli based on a large series of specimens collected by E. W. Oates in several regions of Burma (now Myanmar) (Pocock 1892: 39 “…..literally many hundred examples of a species of Palamnaeus…”). The syntypes in the ZMH are a gift from the BMNH. According to Fet (2000c), only five syntypes (two males, three females) are located in the BMNH, but it is likely that more material is present at the BMNH.

Remarks on collector

Eugene William Oates (1845–1911) was an English naturalist, mostly interested in birds. In 1867, he was hired by the Public Works Department in India and sent to Burma where he remained until 1899, returning twice to England in the meantime (1881–1883, 1888–1890) (Anonymous 1912). During his time in Burma, he made large zoological collections, mostly of birds, that were later acquired by the British Museum.

Figure 44.

Palamneus thorellii Pocock, 1892 [= Heterometrus bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841)], male syntype (A–B), female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Heterometrus ubicki

Fig. 45

Heterometrus ubicki Kovařík, 2004: 46, 53, fig. 30, tab. 1–3

Current combination

Heterometrus ubicki Kovařík, 2004.

Paratype

♀ (ZMH-A0000945), India, Pondichery, Kāraikāl [10°55’00”N, 79°50’00”E], 10.2003–05.2004, T.R.S.N. leg., F. Kovařík leg.

Remarks

The original type series was deposited in František Kovařík’s personal collection (FKCP) and the California Academy of Science (CAS). The present paratype was donated to the ZMH by Kovařík from his private collection.

Figure 45.

Heterometrus ubicki Kovarik, 2004, female paratype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837

Opisthophthalmus adustus

Fig. 46

Opisthophthalmus adustus Kraepelin, 1908d: 260–261

Current combination

Opistophthalmus adustus Kraepelin, 1908

Lectotype

(Fig. 46C–D) ♀ (ZMH-A0000910), Deutsch Südwestafrika [Namibia], Friedrich Fülleborn leg., ded. 04.1908.

Paralectotype

(Fig. 46A–B) ♂ (ZMH-A0000910), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

The specimens were designated lectotype and paralectotype respectively by Lamoral (1979: 675).

Remarks on collector

Friedrich Georg Hans Heinrich Fülleborn (1866–1933) was a medical doctor from West Prussia (now Poland) who specialized in tropical medicine and parasitology. From 1896 onwards, he was a military physician assigned to the Schutztruppe in German East Africa (now Namibia) (Leipoldt 2006). In 1898–1900, he participated in the Nyassa- und Kingagebirgs Expedition to the southern part of the colony where he conducted anthropological and ethnographic research (Fülleborn 1906; J.W.G. 1907). In 1901, he returned to Germany and was appointed Director of the Department of Tropical Hygiene and Tropical Medicine at the Hamburg Institute for Marine and Tropical Diseases.

Figure 46.

Opistophthalmus adustus Kraepelin, 1908, male paralectotype (A–B), female lectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus calvus

Opisthophthalmus calvus L. Koch, 1867: 233–234

Current senior synonym

Opistophthalmus latimanus C. L. Koch, 1841 [synonymized by Purcell 1899: 159–161]

Holotype

♀ (ZMH-A00001867), Südafrika, Museum Godeffroy (2248).

Remarks

The holotype could not be examined nor photographed as it was on loan at the time of writing. The data provided here were taken from Weidner (1959) and Fet (2000c). Prendini (2001: 29) confirmed the synonymy of O. calvus with O. latimanus after examination of the present holotype.

Opisthophthalmus crassimanus

Fig. 47

Opisthophthalmus crassimanus Purcell, 1899: 164–168

Current combination

Opistophthalmus crassimanus Purcell, 1899

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 47A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 47C–D), 1 ♀, 1 subadult ♀, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0001086, ZMH-A0001087, ZMH-A0001088), [South Africa], Cape Colony [Northern Cape], Namaqualand [Namakwa District], Jackals Water [Jakkalswater near Springbok] [29°38’19”S, 17°48’29”E], 02.1897, M. Rudolf Schlechter leg.

Remarks

A complete revision of the genus Opistophthalmus is being prepared (Prendini in prep.) and we decided not to designate lectotype and paralectotype among the type specimens in order to avoid interferencing with this ongoing project.

Remarks on collector

Rudolf Schlechter (1872–1925) was a German botanist who wrote several works on orchids. He collected more than 12 thousands botanical specimens in South Africa between 1891 and 1898 (Jessop 1964).

Figure 47.

Opistophthalmus crassimanus Purcell, 1899, male syntype (A–B), female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus fossor

Fig. 48

Opisthophthalmus fossor Purcell, 1898: 9–12, figs. 4, 4a

Current combination

Opistophthalmus fossor Purcell, 1898

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 48A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 48C–D) (ZMH-A0000935), [South Africa], Cap Colonie [Western Cape], Worcester division, Schlanghoek [Slanghoek] [33°38’00”S, 19°12’00”E], [R. Francke leg.], F. Purcell don., ded. 27.12.1898.

Remarks

Among the type material, Purcell (1898) listed two males and two females from Schlanghoek. The specimens in the ZMH are part of this series and the remaining specimens are in the South African Museum (Cape Town).

Figure 48.

Opistophthalmus fossor Purcell, 1898, male syntype (A–B), female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus fuscipes

Fig. 49

Opisthophthalmus fuscipes Purcell, 1898: 20–23

Current combination

Opistophthalmus fuscipes Purcell, 1898

Paralectotypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 49A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 49C–D) (ZMH-A0001865), [South Africa], Kapland [Western Cape], Tulbagh Division, near the railway station [33°19’13”S, 19°05’59”E] Tulbagh Road at the foot of the Waterfall Mountains, F. Purcell leg.

Remarks

Purcell (1899: 149–150) considered O. fuscipes as a subspecies of Opistophthalmus capensis (Herbst, 1800). Prendini (2001) subsequently highlighted consistent diagnostic differences between the two taxa and thus reinstated O. fuscipes as a species. Prendini (2001) also designated lectotype and paralectotype from the syntype series housed in the SAMC collection but did not cite the present specimens. Purcell (1898) mentioned that numerous specimens were part of the type series without giving a precise number. Given that the data of the present specimens match that of the original description, they are considered as paralectotypes.

Figure 49.

Opistophthalmus fuscipes Purcell, 1898, 1 male (A–B), female (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus granicauda

Fig. 50A–B

Opisthophthalmus granicauda Purcell, 1898: 14–16

Current combination

Opistophthalmus granicauda Purcell, 1898

Paralectotype

♂ (ZMH-A0000929), [South Africa], [Northern Cape], Namaqualand, Port Nolloth [29°15’06”S, 16°52’10”E], F. Purcell leg., ded. 27.XII.1898.

Remarks

Purcell (1898) listed 12 specimens (11 males, 1 female) from Port Nolloth which form the type series. This series is held by the SAMC and the present specimen was donated to the ZMH from this material.

Opisthophthalmus intercedens

Fig. 50C–D

Opisthophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908d: 262, 265

Current combination

Opistophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908

Paralectotype

1 juvenile (ZMH-A0002215), [Namibia], Kl. Namaland, [Karas Region], Kubub [26°44‘00“S, 16°17‘00“E], Leonhard Schultze leg., ded 06.1907.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908d) mentioned two juveniles and a subadult female as type specimens. A female and one juvenile are present in the ZMB collections and these were designated as lectotype (ZMB/Arach-14973) and paralectotype (ZMB/Arach-14973) by Lamoral (1979: 723).

Remarks on collector

Leonhard Sigmund Schultze (1872–1955) was a German ethnologist and zoologist. He led a major expedition to Namibia in 1903–1905 (Schultze 1907) and between March and May 1904. The party visited the area between Angra Pequena and Kubub (Schultze 1907, 1908 [see map]; also see Harms and Dupérré 2018 for details). After returning to Germany, he was Director of the Museum of Ethnology from 1913 to 1937.

Figure 50.

Opistophthalmus granicauda Purcell, 1898, male paralectotype (A–B). Opistophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908, juvenile paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus latimanus karrooensis

Opisthophthalmus latimanus karrooensis Purcell, 1899: 1–5

Current combination

Opistophthalmus karrooensis Purcell, 1899

Probably not types

1 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0001866), [South Africa], Cap-Kolonie [Northern Cape], Little Bushmanland [29°34’12.8”S, 18°30’58.6”E], 27.11.1898, F. Purcell leg.

Remarks

The types could not be examined nor photographed as they were on loan at the time of writing. Fet (2000c) only listed specimens in the SAMC (62 syntypes) and none in the ZMH. Prendini (2001) designated lectotype and paralectotypes from a series of 129 specimens in the SAMC. The locality data mentioned by Fet (2000c) and Prendini (2001) do not correspond to the data of the present specimens which are thus probably not types. Prendini also confirms that he does not consider these specimens as type (pers. comm.).

Opisthophthalmus latimanus keilandsi

Fig. 51

Opisthophthalmus latimanus keilandsi Hewitt, 1914: 7–8

Current combination

Opistophthalmus keilandsi Hewitt, 1914 [elevated to species status by Prendini, 2001: 27]

Probably not types

1 ♂ (Fig. 51A–B), 1 ♀ (Fig. 51C–D) (ZMH-A0000911), [South Africa], Kapland, Eastern Cape Colony [Eastern Cape], Keilands [32°11’00”S, 27°30’00”E], Oestl. [to the East], 01.1913, J. Hewitt leg. (no 1728), ded. 06.1914.

Remarks

Hewitt (1914) listed one male and three females collected in “Keilands near Tsomo C.P., Rev. Fr. Albert Schweiger coll., Fr. P. Boneberg leg. (to the Albany Museum)”. The locality of the ZMH specimens matches that of the types. According to the label, they were donated by Hewitt, the original author. However, four specimens (one female, three males) are present in the collections of the Albany Museum and have been designated as lectotype and paralectotypes by Prendini (2001: p.47). The ZMH specimens may have been gifted by Hewitt but do not appear to be types, contra Weidner (1959).

Figure 51.

Opistophthalmus keilandsi Hewitt, 1914, male (A–B), female (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus leipoldti

Fig. 52

Opisthophthalmus leipoldti Purcell, 1898: 18–20, pl. III, fig. 5

Current combination

Opistophthalmus leipoldti Purcell, 1898 [relegated as a subspecies of O. capensis by Hewitt 1918: 113, elevated to species status by Prendini 2001: 31]

Probably not types

1 ♂ (Fig. 52A–B), 1 ♀(Fig. 52C–D), 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0000916), [South Africa], Cap Colonie [Western Cape], Clanwilliam [32°10’54”S, 18°53’31”E], 27.12.1895, C. L. Leipoldt leg., F. Purcell don.

Remarks

Purcell (1898) listed 21 specimens (4 males, 6 females, 11 juveniles) from Clanwilliam in the type series located in the South African Museum (Cape Town). The ZMH specimens are a gift to the Hamburg Museum but they are probably not part of the original series as explained by Prendini (2001). One lectotype male and 20 paralectotypes (three males, four females, one subadult male, four subadult females and eight juveniles) from the series of syntypes held at the SAMC were designated by Prendini (2001: 31). Given that the number of specimens at the SAMC matches the original data by Purcell, it is doubtfull that the five ZMH specimens are types (Prendini 2001: 47).

Figure 52.

Opistophthalmus leipoldti Purcell, 1898, male (A–B), female (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus pictus

Fig. 53

Opisthophthalmus pictus Kraepelin 1894: 80, 102–104, pl. I, fig. 35

Current combination

Opistophthalmus pictus Kraepelin, 1894

Paralectotypes

4 ♀ (ZMH-A0000912), [South Africa], Oranje-Freistaat [Freestate], Reddersburg [29°39’10”S, 26°10’03”E], H. Meyer leg., ded. 30.04.1887.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1894) reported eight specimens in the type series: seven from Reddersburg in the ZMH collections and one from Cape Town in the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Kopenhagen (ZMUC). Prendini (2001) reported seven syntype specimens and designated one female lectotype (ZMB/Arach-7186) in the ZMB, four females paralectotypes in the ZMH (the specimens listed here), one female paralectotype in the BMNH, and one female paralectotype in the ZMUC.

Remarks on collector

The possible collector is Hans Meyer (1858–1929) who was a German geographer and the first European to reach the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in 1889. Meyer traveled extensively in eastern Africa but we are not sure if he also traveled to southern Africa.

Figure 53.

Opistophthalmus pictus Kraepelin 1894, female paralectotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Opisthophthalmus pilosus

Opisthophthalmus pilosus Werner 1936: 187–188, fig. 5

Current senior synonym

Opistophthalmus flavescens Purcell, 1898 [synonymized by Prendini 2001: 24]

Syntypes (lost)

Data according to the original description: 1 ♀, Südwestafrika [German South West Africa = Namibia], [Karas Region], Lüderitzbucht [Lüderitz Bay] [26°38’58”S, 15°10’03”E], 30–40 km im Umkreis Dünen [30–40 km within sand dunes], Eberlanz leg., entry number 44 (1929); 1 ♀, Deutsch-Südwestafrika [German South West Africa=Namibia], Prof. Dr. Griess leg., entry number 18 (1929).

Remarks

The syntype series was lost during a plane crash when the material loaned to B. H. Lamoral was sent back to Hamburg (label in jar from H. Dastych: “B. H. Lamoral 18.XI.1974; Das ganze Material ist verloren, 1975. Das Flugzeug ist abgestürzt”). Lamoral and Reynders (1975: 563) established Opisthophthalmus werneri as a replacement name for O. pilosus Werner, 1936 wich is a junior homonym of O. pilosus C. L. Koch, 1838. Prendini (2001: see p.24 for details) later demonstrated that O. werneri is a junior synonym of Opisthophthalmus flavescens Purcell, 1898.

Opisthophthalmus schultzei

Fig. 54A–B

Opisthophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908d: 261–263

Current combination

Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908

Paralectotypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 54A–B), 2 ♀ (ZMH-A0000913), 2 subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0002216), [Namibia], Gross Namaland, [Karas Region], Kubub [26°44’00”S, 16°17’00”E], 06.1907, Leonhard Schultze leg., ZMB.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908d) mentioned numerous specimens (male, female and juveniles). The bulk of the original series is deposited in the ZMB, and specimens were donated to the Albany Museum (Grahamstown, South Africa) and to the ZMH. Lectotype (1 female) and paralectotype (1 male) were designated by Lamoral (1979: 750) from the syntype series in the ZMB. Fet (2000c: 463) listed material in Berlin and Albany as well as 6 paralectotypes (2 males, 4 females) in Hamburg. Prendini (2001: 40) examined 25 specimens in the ZMB [one lectotype female, one subadult male paralectotype (ZMB14988); three subadult males paralectotypes (ZMB14989); 4 females, one subadult male, one subadult female, two juvenile females, eight first instars paralectotypes (ZMB14990); two females paralectotypes (ZMB14991); one subadult male paralectotype (ZMB14992); one female paralectotype (ZMB14996)] and two in the AMGS [one female and one subadult male paralectotypes]. There is a discrepancy between the number and sexes of specimens listed by Prendini (2001) and the online catalogue of the ZMB [19 specimens in total: one subadult female (ZMB/Arach-14988a lectotype); one male, one subadult female, one juvenile male (ZMB/Arach-14988b–c, paralectotypes), three males (ZMB/Arach-14989, paralectotypes); eight females and one juvenile (ZMB/Arach-14990, paralectotypes); two males (ZMB/Arach-14991, paralectotypes); one male (ZMB/Arach-14992, paralectotype)].

Remarks on collector

See paragraph about Opisthophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908 above.

Opisthophthalmus undulatus

Fig. 54C–D

Opisthophthalmus undulatus Kraepelin, 1908d: 261, 263–264

Current senior synonym

Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908 [synonymized by Lamoral 1979: 745]

Syntypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 54C–D), 3 ♂ (ZMH-A0001070), [Namibia], Gross Namaland, [Karas Region], Kubub [26°44’00”S, 16°17’00”E], 06.1907, Leonhard Schultze leg., ZMB.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1908d) mentioned numerous specimens (males, females and juveniles). However, while the bulk of the type series is deposited in the ZMB, four specimens of the type series were gifted to the ZMH. According to Lamoral (1979), 2 syntypes should be deposited in the ZMB. Fet (2000c: 463) listed 21 syntypes in the Berlin collection and one in the AM (a gift from Berlin) but none in Hamburg. Prendini (2001: 40) examined 17 syntypes from the ZMB [14 males (ZMB14993), two males (ZMB14995), one male (ZMB 14997)] and one syntype male from the AMGS. He also (Prendini 2001: 48) mentioned in a footnote the existence of three additional specimens from the type series in the ZMB [two males (ZMB14994); one male (ZMB14996)] and four in the ZMH. Currently, the online catalogue of the ZMB reports 20 syntypes [2 males, 12 non-sexed specimens (ZMB/Arach-14993), 2 males (ZMB/Arach-14994), 2 males (ZMB/Arach-14995), 1 male (ZMB/Arach-14996), 1 male (ZMB/Arach-14997)].

Remarks on collector

See paragraph about Opisthophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908 above.

Figure 54.

Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908, female paralectotype (A–B). Opistophthalmus undulatus Kraepelin, 1908 [= Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908], male syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Pandinurus Fet, 1997

Scorpio gregorii

Fig. 55A–B

Scorpio gregorii Pocock, 1896: 432–435, pl. XVIII, fig. 3, 3a

Current combination

Pandinurus gregoryi (Pocock, 1896)

Syntype

1 ♀ (ZMH-A0000941), [Kenya], [Taita Taveta], S. W. Tzavo [Tsavo] [2°59’52”S, 38°27’30”E], [04–05.1893], John Walter Gregory leg., BMNH don., ded. 06.1897.

Remarks

Pocock (1896) listed a female from «Kinani», a female from «Tanganyko (confluence of the Athi River)», and six specimens (two males, three females and a juvenile) from Tzavo. The present specimen is part of the material collected in Tzavo and was donated by the BMNH, the other specimens remain in London.

Remarks on collector

John Walter Gregory (1864–1932) was a British geologist and explorer who studied glacial geology and geography and geology of Australia and East Africa. He led the first scientific expedition to Mount Kenya in 1902–3 (Gregory 1896). The crew reached the foothills of the mountain from the coast to Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley, and managed to ascend as far as the glaciers area at around 4730 m. When traveling from Mombasa to Machakos, Gregory stopped at Tzavo station sometime between April and May 1893. There he collected most of the type material (Gregory 1896: 74): “In company with the Goanese commandant I spent a pleasant afternoon catching lizard and scorpions, and digging up the skulls of some Wa-kamba who had been killed by the Masai”.

Scorpio pallidus

Fig. 55C–D

Scorpio pallidus Kraepelin, 1894: 33, 60–62, pl. I, fig. 11

Current combination

Pandinurus pallidus (Kraepelin, 1894)

Lectotype

1 subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0001872), [Indonesia], Baravez, Sumatra, 02.03.1891, Putre leg. Corrected after Pocock (1896) to “Somalia, [Lower Shabeelle], Barawa [1°06’30”N, 43°50’41”E]” (see below).

Paralectotypes

2 juveniles (ZMH-A0000938), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Kraepelin (1894) mentioned four specimens in the type series. According to Pocock (1896: 435), the handwritten labels were incorrectly deciphered by Kraepelin and should be interpreted as “Barawa, Somalia” instead of “Baravez, Sumatra”. Upon examination of the labels, we agree with Pocock conclusion. Moreover, the genus Pandinurus is exclusively African, and Sumatra is completely out of its distribution area. The ZMH series comprises three animals and the additional specimen may be lost or may have been donated to another museum. The subadult male is designated as the lectotype, the other two specimens as paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

Two potential collectors were identified here for these specimens: Johann Maria Hildebrandt (1847–1881) and Gustav Adolf Fischer (1848–1886). Hildebrandt was a German explorer and scientist. From 1871 to 1881 he made several expeditions to the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes during which he amassed important collections of botanical and zoological specimens (Beentje 1998). A new species of skink, Trachypelpis hildebrandtii (Peters, 1874), was named after him based on material he collected in Barawa, Somalia (Peters 1874). A large part of his zoological collection is deposited in the ZMB. Fischer (See paragraph about Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) fischeri Kraepelin, 1911 above for biographical details) also prospected in Barawa (1882–1883) and enlisted the services of local people to collect for him (Fischer, 1885c). At least a second scorpion species named after him, Uroplectes fischeri (Karsch, 1879), was described from the material that were collected back then. Fischer’s zoological material is at least in part housed in the collections of the ZMH and it is thus more probable that the types of P. pallidus were collected by Fischer rather than Hildebrandt.

Figure 55.

Scorpio gregoryi Pocock, 1896 [= Pandinurus gregoryi (Pocock, 1896)], female syntype (A–B). Scorpio pallidus Kraepelin, 1894 [= Pandinurus pallidus (Kraepelin, 1894)], 1 subadult male syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Pandinus Thorell, 1876

Pandinus camerounensis

Fig. 56

Pandinus camerounensis Lourenço, 2014b: 143–149

Current senior synonym

Pandinus imperator (C. L. Koch, 1841) [synonymized by Prendini 2016: 53]

Holotype

(Fig. 56) ♂ (Fig. 56A–B, ZMH-A0001082), Cameroon, Regions of Sanguéré-Djoi/Kismatari/Djalingo (average coordinates: 9°23.229’N, 13°50.068’E), 08.2011–11.2012, cotton and tomato fields (in termite mounds), P. Prudent leg. PS-0165-G1 (ZMH Eing. Nr. A19/14).

Paratypes

1 subadult ♂, 2 juveniles, same as holotype (ZMH Eing, Nr. A20/14).

Remarks

Two paratypes are deposited in the MNHN (Lourenço 2014b).

Figure 56.

Pandinus camerounensis Lourenço, 2014, male holotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Genus Scorpio Linnaeus, 1758

Scorpio maurus yemenensis

Fig. 57

Scorpio maurus yemenensis Werner, 1936: 183–184, fig 4

Current combination

Scorpio yemenensis Werner, 1936 [raised to species-level by Lourenço and Cloudsey-Thompson 2009: 125]

Lectotype

♂ (Fig. 57A–B, ZMH-A000931), Arabien, Yemen, Sanaa [15°21’17”N, 44°12’24”E], 26.08.1931, Carl Rathjens leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. 38.1932).

Paralectotypes

9 ♂, 17 ♀, 9 subadult ♂, 5 subadult ♀, 13 juveniles (ZMH-A0002213); 1 ♀ (Fig. 57C–D, ZMH-A000932), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

Werner (1936) provided the locality name and date as “Arabien, Yemen, Huka, Hazz, 1–7.1928, Eing. No. 36, 1928”. Weidner (1959) stated the same locality and a total of 55 specimens (one holotype and 54 paratypes). Although the number of specimens matches that of the series examined, the locality is different from that stated on the label in the jar. However, Huka/Haz are two villages in the Sanaa governorate, so it is possible that Werner have more detailed information on Rathjens travel itinerary. According to the ICZN, a lectotype male is designated here and the remaining specimens as paralectotypes.

Remarks on collector

Carl August Rathjens (1887–1966) was a German geographer with a special interest in South Arabian historiography, geology and ethnography. He travelled to Yemen in 1927, 1931, 1934 and 1938 (Anonymous 1970).

Figure 57.

Scorpio yemensis Werner, 1936, male lectotype (A–B), female paralectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Scorpio maurus occidentalis

Fig. 58

Scorpio maurus occidentalis Werner, 1936: 184–185, fig. 4

Current combination

Scorpio occidentalis Werner, 1936 [elevated to species rank by Lourenço 2009: 103]

Neotype

♂ (ZMH-A0000895), Senegal, [Kédougou], Parc National du Niokolo-Kola [Niokolo-Koba National Park] [13°00’27”N, 12°54’52”W], 11.1979, P. M. Brignoli leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A8/09).

Remarks

Werner (1936) described the species from “Senegal, Wüstengebiet nördlich des Oberen Gambia” and Weidner (1959) listed the male holotype as lost (“verbrannt”). The original type was destroyed in 1943 according to Fet (2000c). Lourenço (2009) elevated the subspecies occidentalis to species level and designated a neotype.

Figure 58.

Scorpio occidentalis Werner, 1936, male neotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Scorpio savanicola

Fig. 59

Scorpio savanicola Lourenço, 2009: 110–111

Current combination

Scorpio savanicola Lourenço, 2009

Holotype

(Fig. 59A–B) 1 ♂ (ZMH-A0000942), Cameroon, [North Region], South of Garoua [9°18’05”N, 13°23’51”E], savannah formation, 10.1981, P. M. Brignoli leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A10/09).

Paratypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 59C–D), 1 subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0000897), same data as holotype (ZMH Eing. Nr. A9/09).

Figure 59.

Scorpio savanicola Lourenço, 2009, male holotype (A–B), female paratype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Family Scorpiopidae Kraepelin, 1905

Type specimens belonging to five species are present at ZMH.

Genus Scorpiops Peters, 1861

Scorpiops afghanus

Fig. 60A–C

Scorpiops afghanus Lourenço & Qi, 2006: 278, 280–284, figs. 2–15

Current combination

Scorpiops afghanus Lourenço & Qi, 2006

Holotype

(Fig. 60A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0002212), Afghanistan, [Badakhshan Province], [Wākhān District], Valley of Vakhan, W of Langar [37°02’08”N, 73°49’00”E], E of Panjeh [Qal‘ah-ye Panjah] [37°00’02”N, 72°34’50”E], 3400m, 4.VI.1971, C. Naumann and E. Kullmann leg.

Paratypes

2 juveniles (ZMH-A0002211), same data as holotype

Remarks on collector

Clas Michael Naumann zu Königsbruck (1939–2004) was a Professor of Zoology at the University of Bonn and director of the Museum Alexander König in Bonn. His main interest was the biogeography of Afghanistan where he traveled extensively. Ernst Kullmann (1931–1996) was a German arachnologist and director of the Cologne Zoological Garden. The travel route of the “deutschen zoologish-botanischen Expedition 1971”, in which Naumann and Kullman took part, is presented in the map of Naumann and Niethammer (1973: map p. 239).

Scorpiops affinis

Fig. 60D–F

Scorpiops affinis Krapelin, 1898a: 44

Current senior synonym

Scorpiops hardwickii (Gervais, 1843) [synonymized by Kovařík 2000: 174]

Lectotype

♂ (ZMH-A0001203), Himalaya, Henri de Saussure (MHNG) don., ded. 06.1896.

Remarks

The specimen in the ZMH was designated as the lectotype by Kovařík (2000: 176). Kraepelin (1898a) apparently examined more than one specimen because he reported a number of pectinal teeth between five and seven, whereas the present male has six teeth on each pectine. In the absence of the other syntypes, we agree with Kovařík’s assessment.

Remarks on collector

Adolphe (1829–1857), Hermann (1826–1882) and Robert Schlagintweit (1833–1885) were German explorers who regularly sent zoological specimens collected during their travels to Henri de Saussure (1829–1905). In 1854, the brotherhood was commissioned by the East India Company to organize a scientific expedition in their territory. For the next three years, they explored the Deccan, and then the Himalayas, Karakoram and Kuen-lun Mountains (Schalgintweit, Schlagintweit and Schlagintweit 1861). The present specimen was probably collected during this expedition.

Figure 60.

Scorpiops afghanus Lourenço & Qi, 2006, female holotype (A–C). Scorpiops affinis Krapelin, 1898 [= Scorpiops hardwickii (Gervais, 1843)], male lectotype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B), 5 mm (D–E), 1 mm (C), 0.5 mm (F).

Scorpiops dastychi

Fig. 61

Scorpiops dastychi Kovařík, 2000: 170–172, 197, fig. 29, 33–34, 45, 50–51, tab. 1–3

Current combination

Scorpiops dastychi Kovařík, 1999

Holotype

(Fig. 61A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001062), India, [Uttarakhand], Himalaya, Molta [30°28’52”N, 79°32’23”E], 3000m, 06.05.1956 (ZMH 11, batch no. 386), Deutsche Indien-Expedition 1955–57, G. A. von Maydell leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr 1, 1956).

Paratypes

♀ (Fig. 61D–F, ZMH-A0001063), same data as holotype; India, [Uttarakhand], Himalaya, Molta [30°28’52”N, 79°32’23”E], 3000m, Deutsche Indien Expedition 1955–57, G. A. von Maydell leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr 1, 1956); 16.05.1956 (batch no. 402–403), Kovařík Paratypes No. 11–16, 6 ♂ (ZMH-A0002192); 17.05.1956 (batch no. 405), Kovařík Paratypes No. 17–18, 2 ♂ (ZMH-A0002196); 26.05.1956 (batch no. 416), Kovařík Paratypes No. 19–23, 5 ♂ (ZMH-A0002198); 11.V.1956 (batch no. 430), Kovařík Paratypes No. 24–25, 2 ♂ (ZMH-A0002197); 09.05.1956 (ZMH 20, batch no. 389), Kovařík Paratypes no. 32–35, 1 subadult ♀, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0002203); 16.05.1956 (ZMH 12–13, batch no. 402–403), Kovařík Paratypes no. 38–47, 1 ♂, 4 subadult ♂, 5 subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0002202); 9.V.1956 (ZMH 18, batch no. 405), Kovarik Paratypes no. 48–59, 12 ♀ (ZMH-A0002210); 26.05.1956 (ZMH 14, batch no. 416), Kovařík Paratypes no. 60–62, 3 subadult ♀ (ZMH-A0002201); 11.06.1956, (ZMH 19, batch no. 430), Kovařík Paratypes No. 63–67, 2 subadult ♀, 2 subadult ♂, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0002194); 13.06.1956 (ZMH 17, batch no. 432), Kovařík Paratypes No. 68, 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0002199);19.06.1956 (ZMH 11, batch no. 449), Kovařík Paratypes no. 69–72, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0002193); 6.06.1956 (ZMH 11, batch no. 386), Kovařík Paratypes no. 74–76, 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0002195); 09.05.1956 (ZMH 20, batch no. 388), Kovařík Paratypes no. 77–79, 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0002209); 16.05.1956 (ZMH 12–13, batch no. 402–3), Kovařík Paratypes no. 80–83, 1 subadult ♂, 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0002204); 11.06.1956 (ZMH 19, batch no. 430), Kovařík Paratypes no. 84–86, 3 juveniles (ZMH-A0002206); 19.06.1956 (ZMH 05, batch no.449), Kovařík Paratypes no. 87, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0002207); 19–20.06.1956 (ZMH batch no. 444) Kovařík Paratype no. 88, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0002208); (Kovařík Paratypes no. 26) 1 ♂ (ZMH-A0002205), India, [Uttarakhand], Himalaya, Timli [30°22’19”N, 77°43’11”E], Siwalik [Siwālik Range] [30°17’51”N, 77°47’41”E], 19.07.1956 (ZMH 02, batch no. 513), Deutsche Indien-Expedition 1955–557, G. A. von Maydell leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr 1, 1956); (Kovařík Paratypes no. 73) 1 subadult ♂ (ZMH-A0002200), India, [Uttarakhand], Himalaya, Chakrāta [30°42’13”N, 77°51’49”E], 19.06.1956 (ZMH 09, batch no. 448), Deutsh Indien Expedition 1955–57, G. A. von Maydell leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr 1, 1956).

Remarks

Other paratypes are deposited in the following institutions: BMNH (Kovařík Paratype 5: 1 male), SMFD (Kovařík Paratype 6: one male), ZMB (Kovařík Paratypes 7, 37: one male and one female), ROCC (Kovařík Paratype 8: one male), MZUF (Kovařík Paratype 9: one male), NMPC (Kovařík Paratypes 10, 36: one male and one female), MBCZ (Kovařík Paratype 30: one female), MCSN (Kovařík Paratype 31: one female), FKCP (Kovařík Paratypes 1–4, 27–29: four males, two females).

Remarks on collector

Gustav Adolf von Maydell led the German India-Expedition 1955–58, which was commissioned by the Zoological Institute and Museum of Hamburg (Oboussier and v. Maydell 1959, 1960 [see map for detail about collecting localities]; Brandon-Jones 2004 [estimated GPS coordinates of Molta: p. 1578]; Grimm 2011). The botanical, zoological and ethnological material from his expedition was deposited in scientific institutions in Hamburg, but also in Wuppertal, Stuttgart and Bremen.

Figure 61.

Scorpiops dastychi Kovařík 2000, male holotype (A–C), female paratype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Scorpiops feti

Fig. 62

Scorpiops feti Kovařík, 2000: 174–175, 197, fig. 17, 36, 49, 54–55, tab. 1–3

Current combination

Scorpiops feti Kovařík, 2000

Holotype

(Fig. 62A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0001090), India, Sikkim [27°45’00”N, 8°30’00”E], coll. 07.1913, Museum Calcutta don.

Paratypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 61D–F, ZMH-A000949); 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0001089); 1 ♂, 2 ♀, 1 juvenile (ZMH-A0002189); 4 subadult ♂, 2 subadult ♀, 2 juveniles (ZMH-A0002190, A0002191), same data as holotype; ♀ (ZMH-A000948), India, [Assam], Darang [Darrang] [26°30’43”N, 92°10’06”E], 10.1912, Museum Calcutta don; ♂ (ZMH-A002188), India, [Assam], Sibsāgar [Sivasagar] [26°59’03”N, 94°38’16”E], 10.1912, Museum Calcutta don.

Remarks

Two paratypes (one male, one female) are deposited in FKCP.

Figure 62.

Scorpiops feti Kovařík, 2000, male holotype (A–C), female paratype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Scorpiops kraepelini

Fig. 63

Scorpiops kraepelini Lourenço, 1998: 246, 248, 252–253, figs.1–9, 13

Current combination

Scorpiops kraepelini Lourenço, 1998

Holotype

(Fig. 63A–C) ♂ (ZMH-A0000947), Pakistan, [Balouchistan Province], Loralai District, 14 miles E of Zirãt [Ziārat] [30°24’07”N, 67°43’24”E], 06.1961, J. Anderson leg. (ZMH Eing. Nr. A28/98).

Paratype

(Fig. 63D–F) ♀ (ZMH-A0000946), same data as holotype (ZMH Eing. Nr. A29/98).

Figure 63.

Scorpiops kraepelini Lourenço, 1998, male holotype (A–C), female paratype (D–F): A, D dorsal aspect of habitus B, E ventral aspect of habitus C, F retrolateral aspect of chela illustrating dentate margins of fingers. Scale bars: 10 mm (A–B, D–E), 1 mm (C, F).

Family Urodacidae Pocock, 1893

Type specimens belonging to three species are present at ZMH.

Genus Urodacus Peters, 1861

Urodacus bicolor

Fig. 64A–B

Urodacus bicolor Werner, 1936: 182–183, fig. 3

Current senior synonym

Urodacus novaehollandiae Peters, 1861 [synonymized by L. E. Koch 1977: 194]

Syntypes

1 ♀ (Fig. 64A–B, ZMH-A0001081); 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0002185), Western Australia, Pickering Brook [32°02’51”S, 116°11’54”E], Wilhelm Michaelsen leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905 (ZMH, Eing. Nr. 4.1926).

Remarks

Werner (1936) reported a male and a female from Pickering Brook and a female from Upper Blackwood District, Brancaster (J. M. Whistler coll.). L. E. Koch (1977) examined the latter specimen and noted that it is a male contrary to Werner (1936) and listed it as a syntype of U. bicolor lodged in the ZMH. Koch also studied the specimens from Pickering Brook and determined them as male and female syntypes of U. bicolor. The specimen from Brancaster could not be found in the collection of the ZMH and may be lost. Given the discrepancies between the sexes of the specimens examined and the sexes reported by previous workers, we decided not to designate a lectotype. The male reported by Werner and Koch should ideally be designated as lectotype but the specimen could not be found during the course of this work.

Remarks on collector

See paragraph on Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908 above.

Urodacus fossor

Fig. 64C–D

Urodacus fossor Kraepelin, 1916: 36–39, fig. 6–7

Current senior synonym

Urodacus yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903) [synonymized by L. E. Koch 1977: 292]

Syntype

♀ (ZMH-A0000943), Australia, Streeters Station, near Broome [17°56’25”S, 122°38’25”E], NW Australia, ex. 1912, Eric Mjöberg leg. (6/811, de dagbokon [the diary]).

Remarks

Kraepelin (1916) reported two females, one from Broome and one from Streeters Station. The present specimen was examined and designated as syntype by L. E. Koch (1977). The second specimen cannot be found in the ZMH collection and is possibly housed in the Natural History Museum in Stockholm. Kraepelin also mentioned in the original description that these scorpions were found in burrows which are four feet deep, have a spiraling shape and a half-moon cross-section, hence their name.

Remarks on collector

Eric Georg Mjöberg (1882–1938) was a Swedish zoologist and ethnographer who led the first Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia in the early 1900s (Mjöberg 1915; Musgrave 1932). Mjöberg travelled to Australia again in 1912–1913, exploring the Queensland Wet Tropics. From 1920 onwards, he established himself in Indonesia, working as chief of the Zoological Department for the Deli Experimental Station (Medan, Sumatra) from 1919 to 1922, then as curator of the Sarawak State Museum (Borneo) from 1922 to 1924, finally leading an expedition to Central Borneo in 1925–1926.

Figure 64.

Urodacus bicolor Werner, 1936 [= Urodacus novaehollandiae Peters, 1861], female syntype (A–B). Urodacus fossor Kraepelin, 1916 [= Urodacus yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903)], female syntype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Urodacus hartmeyeri

Fig. 65

Urodacus hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908c: 99–101, pl. XII, fig. 7–9

Current combination

Urodacus hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908.

Lectotype

(Fig. 65A–B) ♀ (ZMH-A0000936), Western Australia, Tamala (station 70) [26°41’53”S, 113°42’57”E], S of Shark Bay, 07–08.09.1905, Robert Hartmeyer leg., Hamburg’s South-West Australia Expedition 1905.

Paralectotype

♀ (ZMH-A0000936), same data as lectotype.

Remarks

The bigger female is designated lectotype, the other female is paralectotype.

Remarks on collector

Heinrich Hermann Robert Hartmeyer (1874–1923) was a German zoologist. He was curator at the Zoological Museum of the University of Berlin from 1908 onward (Jahn 1969). He led a major expedition to South-Western Australia in 1905 with W. Michaelsen (see paragraph on Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908 above for detail).

Figure 65.

Urodacus hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908, female lectotype, habitus A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Scale bars: 10 mm.

Superfamily Vaejovoidea Thorell, 1876

Type specimens belonging to one species are present at ZMH.

The taxonomic status and generic composition of the family Vaejovidae is still unclear whereas the monophyly of the superfamily Vaejovoidea was recently confirmed by phylogenomic analysis (Santibáñez-López et al. 2019). We thus decided to use here Vaejovoidea instead of Vaejovidae for the classification of Catalinia.

Genus Catalinia Soleglad, Ayrey, Graham & Fet, 2017

Vejovis minimus

Fig. 66

Vejovis minimus Kraepelin, 1911: 83–84

Current combination

Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911)

Lectotype

(Fig. 66C–D) ♀ (ZMH-A0002184), [U.S.A.], California, [Los Angeles], San Pedro [33°44’18”N, 118°17’32”W], coll. 09.1911, Museum Stockholm don.

Paralectotypes

1 ♂ (Fig. 66A–B), 1 ♀ (ZMH-A0002183), [U.S.A.], California, [Los Angeles], San Pedro, coll. 06.07, Museum Gothenburg don.

Remarks

Gertsh and Soleglad (1972: 600) designated a female as lectotype and a male and a female as paratypes. Soleglad et al. (2017) described the genus Catalinia to which they transferred the present species.

Figure 66.

Vejovis minimus Kraepelin, 1911 [= Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911)], male paralectotype (A–B), female lectotype (C–D): A, C dorsal aspect of habitus B, D ventral aspect of habitus. Scale bars: 5 mm.

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the “Gesellschaft der Freunde und Förderer des Zoologischen Museums Hamburg“. We thank Elicio Tapia for imaging most specimens for this catalogue. L. Monod is grateful to Christina Lehman-Graber for her help in editing the photographs of Hormurus boholiensis, Hormurus karschii keyensis and Hormurus papuanus, and John Hollier and Peter Schwendinger for their suggestions and constructive comments. Finally, we would like to acknowledge Victor Fet, František Kovařík and Pedro Sousa for reviewing the manuscript.

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Appendix 1

Alphabetical list of taxon names treated in the catalogue.

adustus (VALID) > Opistophthalmus adustus Kraepelin, 1908 [Scorpionidae]

aequispinnus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) diremptus (Karsch, 1879) [Hormuridae]

afghanus (VALID) > Scorpiops afghanus Lourenço & Qi, 2006 [Scorpiopidae]

affinis (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Scorpiops hardwickii (Gervais, 1843) [Scorpiopidae]

amazonicus (VALID) > Teuthraustes amazonicus (Simon, 1880) [Chactidae]

andohahela (VALID) > Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) andohahela Lourenço, 2014 [Hormuridae]

bicolor (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Urodacus novaehollandiae Peters, 1861 [Urodacidae]

bocki (VALID) > Bothriurus bocki Kraepelin, 1911 [Bothriuridae]

boholiensis (VALID) > Hormurus boholiensis Kraepelin, 1914 [Hormuridae]

burmeisteri (VALID) > Bothriurus burmeisteri Kraepelin, 1894 [Bothriuridae]

asper (VALID) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) asper (Peters, 1861) [Hormuridae]

brevidigitatus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Liocheles australasiae (Sundevall, 1775) [Hormuridae]

calvus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opistophthalmus latimanus C. L. Koch, 1841 [Scorpionidae]

camerounensis (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Pandinus imperator (C. L. Koch, 1841) [Scorpionidae]

catharinae (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Bothriurus signatus Pocock, 1893 [Bothriuridae]

caudicula (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Hormurus waigiensis (Gervais, 1843) [Hormuridae]

crassimanus (VALID) > Opistophthalmus crassimanus Purcell, 1899 [Scorpionidae]

curvidigitus (VALID) > Orobothriurus curvidigitus (Kraepelin, 1911) [Bothriuridae]

dastychi (VALID) > Scorpiops dastychi Kovařík , 1999 [Scorpiopidae]

exsul (VALID) > Chactas exsul (Werner, 1939) [Chactidae]

feti (VALID) > Scorpiops feti Kovařík, 2000 [Scorpiopidae]

fischeri (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) rugiceps Pocock, 1897 [Hormuridae]

flavidus (VALID) > Bothriurus flavidus Kraepelin, 1911 [Bothriuridae]

fossor (VALID) > Opistophthalmus fossor Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

fossor (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Urodacus yaschenkoi (Birula, 1903) [Urodacidae]

fuchsii (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Chactas vanbenedenii (Gervais, 1843) [Chactidae]

fuscipes (VALID) > Opistophthalmus fuscipes Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

glaber (VALID) > Cheloctonus glaber Kraepelin, 1896 [Hormuridae]

granicauda (VALID) > Opistophthalmus granicauda Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

granulosus (VALID) > Cercophonius granulosus Kraepelin, 1908 [Bothriuridae]

gregorii (VALID) > Pandinurus gregoryi (Pocock, 1896) [Scorpionidae]

hartmeyeri (VALID) > Urodacus hartmeyeri Kraepelin, 1908 [Urodacidae]

hasethi (VALID) > Didymocentrus hasethi (Kraepelin, 1896) [Diplocentridae]

himalayensis (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Phoniocercus sanmartini Cekalovic, 1968 [Bothriuridae]

intercedens (VALID) > Opistophthalmus intercedens Kraepelin, 1908 [Scorpionidae]

intermedius (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Chactas lepturus Thorell, 1876 [Chactidae]

kaii (VALID) > Heteroscorpion kaii Lourenço & Goodman, 2009 [Heteroscorpionidae]

karrooensis (VALID) > Opistophthalmus karrooensis Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

keilandsi (VALID) > Opistophthalmus keilandsi Hewitt, 1914 [Scorpionidae]

keyensis (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Hormurus karschii (Keyserling, 1885) [Hormuridae]

kraepelini (VALID) > Scorpiops kraepelini Lourenço, 1998 [Scorpiopidae]

laeviceps (VALID) > Iomachus laeviceps Pocock, 1890 [Hormuridae]

leipoldti (VALID) > Opistophthalmus leipoldti Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

lepturus (VALID) > Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861 [Hemiscorpiidae]

maculatus (VALID) > Bothriurus maculatus Kraepelin, 1911 [Bothriuridae]

madagascariensis (VALID) > Opisthacanthus (Monodopisthacanthus) madagascariensis Kraepelin, 1894 [Hormuridae]

maindroni (VALID) > Hemiscorpius maindroni Kraepelin,1900 [Hemiscorpiidae]

major (VALID) > Chactas major Kraepelin, 1912 [Chactidae]

michaelseni (VALID) > Cercophonius michaelseni Kraepelin,1908 [Bothriuridae]

minimus (VALID) > Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911) [Vaejovoidea]

minor (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [Hormuridae]

neocaledonicus (VALID) > Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877) [Hormuridae]

politus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Brachistosternus ehrenbergii (Gervais, 1841) [Bothriuridae]

obscurus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) capensis Thorell, 1876 [Hormuridae]

occidentalis (VALID) > Iomachus politus occidentalis Lourenço, 2003 [Hormuridae]

occidentalis (VALID) > Scorpio occidentalis Werner, 1936 [Scorpionidae]

ochripes (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [Hormuridae]

ohausi (VALID) > Teuthraustes ohausi Kraepelin, 1912 [Chactidae]

opisthacanthoides (VALID) > Heteroscorpion opisthacanthoides (Kraepelin, 1896) [Heteroscorpionidae]

ozendai (VALID) > Chactas ozendai Lourenço, 1999 [Chactidae]

paessleri (VALID) > Orobothriurus paessleri (Kraepelin, 1911) [Bothriuridae]

pallidus (VALID) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) africanus pallidus Lourenço, 2003 [Hormuridae]

pallidus (VALID) > Pandinurus pallidus (Kraepelin, 1894) [Scorpionidae]

pantanalensis (VALID) > Brazilobothriurus pantanalensis Lourenço & Monod, 2000 [Bothriuridae]

parvulus (VALID) > Broteochactas parvulus Pocock, 1897 [Chactidae]

pauliani (VALID) > Palaeocheloctonus pauliani Lourenço, 1996 [Hormuridae]

papuanus (VALID) > Hormurus papuanus Kraepelin, 1914 [Hormuridae]

phipsonii (VALID) > Heterometrus phipsonii (Pocock,1893) [Scorpionidae]

pictus (VALID) > Opistophthalmus pictus Kraepelin, 1894 [Scorpionidae]

pilosus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opistophthalmus flavescens Purcell, 1898 [Scorpionidae]

sarasini (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Hormurus neocaledonicus (Simon, 1877) [Hormuridae]

reticulatus (VALID) > Chactas reticulatus Kraepelin, 1912 [Chactidae]

savanicola (VALID) > Scorpio savanicola Lourenço, 2009 [Scorpionidae]

schultzei (VALID) > Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908 [Scorpionidae]

setosus (VALID) > Chactas setosus Kraepelin, 1912 [Chactidae]

somalicus (VALID) > Hemiscorpius somalicus Lourenço, 2011 [Hemiscorpiidae]

sulcatus (VALID) > Cercophonius sulcatus Kraepelin, 1908 [Bothriuridae]

thorellii (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Heterometrus bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841) [Scorpionidae]

titschacki (VALID) > Centromachetes titschacki (Werner,1939) [Bothriuridae]

transvaalicus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opisthacanthus (Nepabellus) validus Thorell, 1876 [Hormuridae]

trivittatus (VALID) > Bothriurus trivittatus Werner, 1939 [Bothriuridae]

troglodytes (VALID) > Hadogenes troglodytes (Peters, 1861) [Hormuridae]

ubicki (VALID) > Heterometrus ubicki Kovařík, 2004 [Scorpionidae]

undulatus (JUNIOR SYNONYM) > Opistophthalmus schultzei Kraepelin, 1908 [Scorpionidae]

wittii (VALID) > Teuthraustes witti (Kraepelin, 1896) [Chactidae]

yemenensis (VALID) > Scorpio yemensis Werner, 1936 [Scorpionidae]